How to format your references using the European Journal of Pain citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Pain. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Watts, C. (2004). Immunology. The bell tolls for phagosome maturation. Science 304, 976–977.
A journal article with 2 authors
Griffin, T.M., Kram, R. (2000). Penguin waddling is not wasteful. Nature 408, 929.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wiedenheft, B., Sternberg, S.H., Doudna, J.A. (2012). RNA-guided genetic silencing systems in bacteria and archaea. Nature 482, 331–338.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Trachtenberg, J.T., Chen, B.E., Knott, G.W., Feng, G., Sanes, J.R., Welker, E., Svoboda, K. (2002). Long-term in vivo imaging of experience-dependent synaptic plasticity in adult cortex. Nature 420, 788–794.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saguet, P. (2013). Numerical Analysis in Electromagnetics (Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.).
An edited book
(2016). Neurotoxin Modeling of Brain Disorders — Life-long Outcomes in Behavioral Teratology (Cham: Springer International Publishing).
A chapter in an edited book
Osawa, T., Julimantoro, S. (2010). Study of Fishery Ground Around Indonesia Archipelago Using Remote Sensing Data. In Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies for Climate Change, A. Sumi, K. Fukushi, and A. Hiramatsu, eds. (Tokyo: Springer Japan), pp. 57–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Pain.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2017). An Enormous Mysterious Crack Just Opened Up In The Middle Of The Arizona Desert (IFLScience).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2008). Air Traffic Control: FAA Uses Earned Value Techniques to Help Manage Information Technology Acquisitions, but Needs to Clarify Policy and Strengthen Oversight (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ghale, K. (2015). Modeling the Traffic Impacts During Evacuation of a Suburban University Campus: A Case Study. Doctoral dissertation. Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Novick, S.M. (2016). Satisfying the Sweet (and Savory) Tooth. New York Times LI8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Watts, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Griffin and Kram, 2000; Watts, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Griffin and Kram, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Trachtenberg et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Pain
AbbreviationEur. J. Pain
ISSN (print)1090-3801
ISSN (online)1532-2149
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine

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