How to format your references using the European Journal of Pain citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Pain. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clayton, J. (2010). Chagas disease: pushing through the pipeline. Nature 465, S12-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Marcus, D.M., Grollman, A.P. (2006). Science and government. Review for NCCAM is overdue. Science 313, 301–302.
A journal article with 3 authors
Laland, K.N., Odling-Smee, J., Feldman, M.W. (2004). Causing a commotion. Nature 429, 609.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Yeh, A., Soh, Y.-A., Brooke, J., Aeppli, G., Rosenbaum, T.F., Hayden, S.M. (2002). Quantum phase transition in a common metal. Nature 419, 459–462.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tschannen-Moran, B., Tschannen-Moran, M. (2010). Evocative Coaching (San Francisco, CA, USA: Jossey-Bass).
An edited book
(2009). HCI and Usability for e-Inclusion: 5th Symposium of the Workgroup Human-Computer Interaction and Usability Engineering of the Austrian Computer Society, USAB 2009, Linz, Austria, November 9-10, 2009 Proceedings (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer).
A chapter in an edited book
Pavlenko, A., Piller, I. (2008). Language Education and Gender. In Encyclopedia of Language and Education, N.H. Hornberger, ed. (Boston, MA: Springer US), pp. 57–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Pain.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). The Moon Was A First Step, Mars Will Test Our Capabilities, But Europa Is The Prize (IFLScience).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2012). Next Generation Air Transportation System: FAA Faces Implementation Challenges (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fulton, E. (2010). Differential effects of nicotine on prospective memory, sustained attention, and working memory. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (2017). Yuri Drozdov, 91, Top Spy For K.G.B. Who Planted Agents Around the Globe. New York Times B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Clayton, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Clayton, 2010; Marcus and Grollman, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Marcus and Grollman, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Yeh et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Pain
AbbreviationEur. J. Pain
ISSN (print)1090-3801
ISSN (online)1532-2149
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine

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