How to format your references using the European Journal of Pain citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Pain. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chrisey, D.B. (2000). MATERIALS PROCESSING: The Power of Direct Writing. Science 289, 879–881.
A journal article with 2 authors
Teruel, M.N., Meyer, T. (2002). Parallel single-cell monitoring of receptor-triggered membrane translocation of a calcium-sensing protein module. Science 295, 1910–1912.
A journal article with 3 authors
Antón, S.C., Potts, R., Aiello, L.C. (2014). Human evolution. Evolution of early Homo: an integrated biological perspective. Science 345, 1236828.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
DiAntonio, A., Haghighi, A.P., Portman, S.L., Lee, J.D., Amaranto, A.M., Goodman, C.S. (2001). Ubiquitination-dependent mechanisms regulate synaptic growth and function. Nature 412, 449–452.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McGee, G. (2012). Bioethics for beginners (Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell).
An edited book
Greefhorst, D. (2011). Architecture Principles: The Cornerstones of Enterprise Architecture (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer).
A chapter in an edited book
Innocentini-Mei, L.H., Fakhouri, F.M. (2013). Recent Studies on Soy Protein Based Blends, Composites and Nanocomposites. In Advances in Natural Polymers: Composites and Nanocomposites, S. Thomas, P.M. Visakh, and A.P. Mathew, eds. (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), pp. 155–168.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Pain.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2017). What Happens If You Put Red Hot Steel On A Frozen Lake? (IFLScience).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2003). Transportation Security Research: Coordination Needed in Selecting and Implementing Infrastructure Vulnerability Assessments (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garcia, D.M. (2010). Cutting a thorn: The cleansing function of female genital cutting. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear, M.D. (2017). An Obscure Law Unravels Obama’s Legacy, One Rule at a Time. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chrisey, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Chrisey, 2000; Teruel and Meyer, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Teruel and Meyer, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (DiAntonio et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Pain
AbbreviationEur. J. Pain
ISSN (print)1090-3801
ISSN (online)1532-2149
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine

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