How to format your references using the European Journal of Pain citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Pain. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zaanen, J. (2008). Quantum critical electron systems: the uncharted sign worlds. Science 319, 1205–1207.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cochella, L., Green, R. (2005). An active role for tRNA in decoding beyond codon:anticodon pairing. Science 308, 1178–1180.
A journal article with 3 authors
Palikaras, K., Lionaki, E., Tavernarakis, N. (2015). Coordination of mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis during ageing in C. elegans. Nature 521, 525–528.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Wang, Z., Benoit, G., Liu, J., Prasad, S., Aarnisalo, P., Liu, X., Xu, H., Walker, N.P.C., Perlmann, T. (2003). Structure and function of Nurr1 identifies a class of ligand-independent nuclear receptors. Nature 423, 555–560.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Perez, A. (2014). Network Security (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.).
An edited book
(2006). Advances in XML Information Retrieval and Evaluation: 4th International Workshop of the Initiative for the Evaluation of XML Retrieval, INEX 2005, Dagstuhl Castle, Germany, November 28-30, 2005. Revised Selected Papers (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer).
A chapter in an edited book
Fernández-Jalvo, Y., Andrews, P. (2016). Pits and Perforations. In Atlas of Taphonomic Identifications: 1001+ Images of Fossil and Recent Mammal Bone Modification, P. Andrews, ed. (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands), pp. 101–153.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Pain.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016). Gravitational Vortex Generates Wobbles Around A Black Hole (IFLScience).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1982). UMTA’s Research and Development Program Should Pay Closer Attention to Transit Industry Needs (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zoino, J.J. (2017). Field Methods, Sampling Strategies, Historical Documents, and Data Redundancy: A Study of Historic Tenant Farmsteads in Leflore County, Mississippi. Doctoral dissertation. Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bowley, G. (2016). Master of Trades, if Not Art, Says He Was Duped. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zaanen, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Cochella and Green, 2005; Zaanen, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cochella and Green, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Pain
AbbreviationEur. J. Pain
ISSN (print)1090-3801
ISSN (online)1532-2149
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine

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