How to format your references using the European Journal of Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, Paul. 2004. “The Philanthropic Principle.” Nature 431 (7009): 719.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gamerdinger, Martin, and Elke Deuerling. 2014. “Biochemistry. Trigger Factor Flexibility.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 344 (6184): 590–591.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rich, Thomas H., Patricia Vickers-Rich, and Roland A. Gangloff. 2002. “Paleontology. Polar Dinosaurs.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 295 (5557): 979–980.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Chapman, Rob D., Martin Heidemann, Thomas K. Albert, Reinhard Mailhammer, Andrew Flatley, Michael Meisterernst, Elisabeth Kremmer, and Dirk Eick. 2007. “Transcribing RNA Polymerase II Is Phosphorylated at CTD Residue Serine-7.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 318 (5857): 1780–1782.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ming, David, David Glasser, Diane Hildebrandt, Benjamin Glasser, and Matthew Metzer. 2016. Attainable Region Theory. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Finetti, Bruno de, ed. 2011. Mathematical Optimiation in Economics. Vol. 38. C.I.M.E. Summer Schools. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Battisti, Corrado, Gianluca Poeta, and Giuliano Fanelli. 2016. “The Disturbance Regime.” In An Introduction to Disturbance Ecology: A Road Map for Wildlife Management and Conservation, edited by Gianluca Poeta and Giuliano Fanelli, 31–46. Environmental Science and Engineering. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Higher Education.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle. 2017. “Galapagos Giant Tortoises Make A Comeback, Thanks To Innovative Conservation Strategies.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1991. Tax System Modernization: Status of On-Line Files Initiative and Telecommunications Planning. IMTEC-91-41FS. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Huffman, Kevin D. 2009. “Teacher and Administrator Perceptions of a Balanced School Calendar and Its Effects on Students in Poverty.” Doctoral dissertation, St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lee, Linda. 2012. “Bridal Hunger Games.” New York Times, April 15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik 2004; Gamerdinger and Deuerling 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gamerdinger and Deuerling 2014)
  • Three authors: (Rich, Vickers-Rich, and Gangloff 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Chapman et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Higher Education
AbbreviationEur. J. High. Educ.
ISSN (print)2156-8235
ISSN (online)2156-8243

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