How to format your references using the European Journal of Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain, C. 2000. “AAAS Members Fret over Links with Theological Foundation.” Nature 403 (6772): 819.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vanag, V. K., and I. R. Epstein. 2001. “Inwardly Rotating Spiral Waves in a Reaction-Diffusion System.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 294 (5543): 835–837.
A journal article with 3 authors
Auerbach, Benjamin D., Emily K. Osterweil, and Mark F. Bear. 2011. “Mutations Causing Syndromic Autism Define an Axis of Synaptic Pathophysiology.” Nature 480 (7375): 63–68.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Murase, Kohji, Hiroshi Shiba, Megumi Iwano, Fang-Sik Che, Masao Watanabe, Akira Isogai, and Seiji Takayama. 2004. “A Membrane-Anchored Protein Kinase Involved in Brassica Self-Incompatibility Signaling.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 303 (5663): 1516–1519.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shafer, Glenn, and Vladimir Vovk. 2005. Probability and Finance: It’s Only a Game! Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Haque, M. Ohidul. 2005. Income Elasticity and Economic Development: Methods and Applications. Edited by J. Marquez, F. G. Adams, P. Balestra, M. G. Dagenais, D. Kendrick, J. H. P. Paelinck, R. S. Pindyck, and W. Welfe. Vol. 42. Advanced Studies in Theoretical and Applied Econometrics. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
De, Arnab, Rituparna Bose, Ajeet Kumar, and Subho Mozumdar. 2014. “Food Contamination and Wastage by Insects.” In Targeted Delivery of Pesticides Using Biodegradable Polymeric Nanoparticles, edited by Rituparna Bose, Ajeet Kumar, and Subho Mozumdar, 11–13. SpringerBriefs in Molecular Science. New Delhi: Springer India.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Higher Education.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2014. “New Drug Boosts Nerve Regrowth in Rats With Spinal Cord Injuries.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2005. Information Resource Management Internal Control Issues. GAO-05-288R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cox, David Christopher. 2008. “A Measurement of the Neutral Current Neutrino-Nucleon Elastic Cross Section at MiniBooNE.” Doctoral dissertation, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Davey, Monica, Bill Vlasic, and Mary Williams Walsh. 2013. “Detroit Ruling Lifts a Shield on Pensions.” New York Times, December 3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Macilwain 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Macilwain 2000; Vanag and Epstein 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vanag and Epstein 2001)
  • Three authors: (Auerbach, Osterweil, and Bear 2011)
  • 4 or more authors: (Murase et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Higher Education
AbbreviationEur. J. High. Educ.
ISSN (print)2156-8235
ISSN (online)2156-8243

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