How to format your references using the European Journal of Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Miller, Christopher. 2006. “Biophysics. Lonely Voltage Sensor Seeks Protons for Permeation.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 312 (5773): 534–535.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wirth, T., and L. Bernatchez. 2001. “Genetic Evidence against Panmixia in the European Eel.” Nature 409 (6823): 1037–1040.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang, Qiao, Nevine A. Shalaby, and Michael Buszczak. 2014. “Changes in RRNA Transcription Influence Proliferation and Cell Fate within a Stem Cell Lineage.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 343 (6168): 298–301.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Zomot, Elia, Annie Bendahan, Matthias Quick, Yongfang Zhao, Jonathan A. Javitch, and Baruch I. Kanner. 2007. “Mechanism of Chloride Interaction with Neurotransmitter:Sodium Symporters.” Nature 449 (7163): 726–730.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Seyfried, Thomas N. 2012. Cancer as a Metabolic Disease. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hall, Kenneth C., Robert E. Kielb, and Jeffrey P. Thomas, eds. 2006. UNSTEADY AERODYNAMICS, AEROACOUSTICS AND AEROELASTICITY OF TURBOMACHINES. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Ussery, David W., Trudy M. Wassenaar, and Stefano Borini. 2009. “The Challenges of Programming: A Brief Introduction.” In Computing for Comparative Microbial Genomics: Bioinformatics for Microbiologists, edited by David W. Ussery, Trudy M. Wassenaar, and Stefano Borini, 69–91. Computational Biology. London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Higher Education.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. 2016. “New Lizard Is A Dead Ringer For Its Cuban Cousin.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2000. The Challenge of Data Sharing: Results of a GAO-Sponsored Symposium on Benefit and Loan Programs. GAO-01-67. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mayo, Julio. 2010. “Rates and Factors Associated with Child Maltreatment Recurrence for Children from Birth to 5 Years of Age in Ventura County.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, Sophia. 2000. “Banks Scores Six Goals As Syracuse Wins Title.” New York Times, May 30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Miller 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Miller 2006; Wirth and Bernatchez 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wirth and Bernatchez 2001)
  • Three authors: (Zhang, Shalaby, and Buszczak 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Zomot et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Higher Education
AbbreviationEur. J. High. Educ.
ISSN (print)2156-8235
ISSN (online)2156-8243

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