How to format your references using the European Journal of Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clery, Daniel. 2014. “Six Handshakes, Then Silence.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 344 (6187): 964–965.
A journal article with 2 authors
Codelli, Julian A., and Sarah E. Reisman. 2013. “Chemistry. Pactamycin Made Easy.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 340 (6129): 152–153.
A journal article with 3 authors
Peumans, Peter, Soichi Uchida, and Stephen R. Forrest. 2003. “Efficient Bulk Heterojunction Photovoltaic Cells Using Small-Molecular-Weight Organic Thin Films.” Nature 425 (6954): 158–162.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Reimann, J., S. Schlauderer, C. P. Schmid, F. Langer, S. Baierl, K. A. Kokh, O. E. Tereshchenko, et al. 2018. “Subcycle Observation of Lightwave-Driven Dirac Currents in a Topological Surface Band.” Nature 562 (7727): 396–400.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ma, Alice D., Harold R. Roberts, and Miguel A. Escobar. 2012. Hemophilia and Hemostasis. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Peters, James F., Andrzej Skowron, and Henryk Rybiński, eds. 2008. Transactions on Rough Sets IX. Vol. 5390. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Green, Tera Marie, and Brian Fisher. 2011. “The Personal Equation of Complex Individual Cognition during Visual Interface Interaction.” In Human Aspects of Visualization: Second IFIP WG 13.7 Workshop on Human-Computer Interaction and Visualization, HCIV (INTERACT) 2009, Uppsala, Sweden, August 24, 2009, Revised Selected Papers, edited by Achim Ebert, Alan Dix, Nahum D. Gershon, and Margit Pohl, 38–57. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Higher Education.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2015. “How Plants Can Become Zombies.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1987. Financing Higher Education: Examples Comparing Existing and Proposed Student Aid Programs. HRD-87-88FS. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Glasgow, Heather Lovae. 2015. “Design and Selection of Probes for In Vivo Molecular Targeting and Imaging.” Doctoral dissertation, La Jolla, CA: University of California San Diego.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, Mary. 2013. “A.B.A., or Something Unlike It.” New York Times, April 14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baliga 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Lipkin 2000; Weissman 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Codelli and Reisman 2013)
  • Three authors: (Peumans, Uchida, and Forrest 2003)
  • 4 or more authors: (Aubert et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Higher Education
AbbreviationEur. J. High. Educ.
ISSN (print)2156-8235
ISSN (online)2156-8243

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