How to format your references using the European Journal of Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lorimer, Duncan R. 2005. “Astronomy. A Pulsar Bonanza.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 307 (5711): 855–856.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pattabiraman, Vijaya R., and Jeffrey W. Bode. 2011. “Rethinking Amide Bond Synthesis.” Nature 480 (7378): 471–479.
A journal article with 3 authors
Knigge, Christian, Nathan Leigh, and Alison Sills. 2009. “A Binary Origin for ‘blue Stragglers’ in Globular Clusters.” Nature 457 (7227): 288–290.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Dyall, Sabrina D., Weihong Yan, Maria G. Delgadillo-Correa, Adam Lunceford, Joseph A. Loo, Catherine F. Clarke, and Patricia J. Johnson. 2004. “Non-Mitochondrial Complex I Proteins in a Hydrogenosomal Oxidoreductase Complex.” Nature 431 (7012): 1103–1107.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rao, C. Lakshmana, V. Narayanamurthy, and K. R. Y. Simha. 2016. Applied Impact Mechanics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Agapito, Lourdes, Michael M. Bronstein, and Carsten Rother, eds. 2015. Computer Vision - ECCV 2014 Workshops: Zurich, Switzerland, September 6-7 and 12, 2014, Proceedings, Part II. Vol. 8926. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Fu, Yibin. 2007. “Linear and Nonlinear Wave Propagation in Coated or Uncoated Elastic Half-Spaces.” In Waves in Nonlinear Pre-Stressed Materials, edited by Michel Destrade and Giuseppe Saccomandi, 103–127. CISM Courses and Lectures. Vienna: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Higher Education.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2015. “Elon Musk Wants To Launch 4,000 Satellites That Will Provide Internet From Space.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2007. DOD Is Making Progress in Adopting Best Practices for the Transformational Satellite Communications System and Space Radar but Still Faces Challenges. GAO-07-1029R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sokolov, Christopher Kirill. 2017. “Teacher Engagement In Grades 4-8.” Doctoral dissertation, Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barboza, David. 2017. “Chinese Group Reveals Shift Of Ownership To Foundation.” New York Times, July 25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lorimer 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Lorimer 2005; Pattabiraman and Bode 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pattabiraman and Bode 2011)
  • Three authors: (Knigge, Leigh, and Sills 2009)
  • 4 or more authors: (Dyall et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Higher Education
AbbreviationEur. J. High. Educ.
ISSN (print)2156-8235
ISSN (online)2156-8243

Other styles