How to format your references using the European Journal of Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stoll, Heather. 2009. “Journal Club. A Biogeochemist Sees the Value of Diversity in a Changing Ocean.” Nature 460 (7258): 935.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stott, Peter A., and J. A. Kettleborough. 2002. “Origins and Estimates of Uncertainty in Predictions of Twenty-First Century Temperature Rise.” Nature 416 (6882): 723–726.
A journal article with 3 authors
Werner, Shannon L., Derren Barken, and Alexander Hoffmann. 2005. “Stimulus Specificity of Gene Expression Programs Determined by Temporal Control of IKK Activity.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 309 (5742): 1857–1861.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Manning, Sturt W., Christopher Bronk Ramsey, Walter Kutschera, Thomas Higham, Bernd Kromer, Peter Steier, and Eva M. Wild. 2006. “Chronology for the Aegean Late Bronze Age 1700-1400 B.C.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 312 (5773): 565–569.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Johnson, Amy. 2014. Small Animal Pathology for Veterinary Technicians. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Kern, Thorsten A., ed. 2009. Engineering Haptic Devices: A Beginner’s Guide for Engineers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bershadsky, Alexander, Alexander Bozhday, Irina Burukina, Pavel Gudkov, and Alexey Gudkov. 2014. “Concept of Complex Infrastructure Territory for Solving Problems of Integration Intersectoral Statistics.” In Knowledge-Based Software Engineering: 11th Joint Conference, JCKBSE 2014, Volgograd, Russia, September 17-20, 2014. Proceedings, edited by Alla Kravets, Maxim Shcherbakov, Marina Kultsova, and Tadashi Iijima, 49–60. Communications in Computer and Information Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Higher Education.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2015. “Astronomers Spot ENORMOUS Black Hole From The Dawn Of The Universe.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2007. Emergency Management: Most School Districts Have Developed Emergency Management Plans, but Would Benefit from Additional Federal Guidance. GAO-07-609. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Carlson, Lindsey. 2010. “From Albéniz to Arbós: The Orchestration of ‘Iberia.’” Doctoral dissertation, College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt, Linda F. 2006. “Mutiny in the Harbor: One Ship Too Many.” New York Times, June 2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stoll 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Stoll 2009; Stott and Kettleborough 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stott and Kettleborough 2002)
  • Three authors: (Werner, Barken, and Hoffmann 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Manning et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Higher Education
AbbreviationEur. J. High. Educ.
ISSN (print)2156-8235
ISSN (online)2156-8243

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