How to format your references using the European Journal of Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Veevers, John. 2011. “Geophysics: Earth’s Longest Fossil Rift-Valley System.” Nature 479 (7373): 304–306.
A journal article with 2 authors
Petcherski, A. G., and J. Kimble. 2000. “LAG-3 Is a Putative Transcriptional Activator in the C. Elegans Notch Pathway.” Nature 405 (6784): 364–368.
A journal article with 3 authors
Patek, S. N., W. L. Korff, and R. L. Caldwell. 2004. “Biomechanics: Deadly Strike Mechanism of a Mantis Shrimp.” Nature 428 (6985): 819–820.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kim, Ji Young, Min-Wook Oh, Seunghun Lee, Yong Chan Cho, Jang-Hee Yoon, Geun Woo Lee, Chae-Ryong Cho, Chul Hong Park, and Se-Young Jeong. 2014. “Abnormal Drop in Electrical Resistivity with Impurity Doping of Single-Crystal Ag.” Scientific Reports 4 (June): 5450.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Varrall, Geoff. 2011. Making Telecoms Work. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Garcia-Alfaro, Joaquin, Georgios Lioudakis, Nora Cuppens-Boulahia, Simon Foley, and William M. Fitzgerald, eds. 2014. Data Privacy Management and Autonomous Spontaneous Security: 8th International Workshop, DPM 2013, and 6th International Workshop, SETOP 2013, Egham, UK, September 12-13, 2013, Revised Selected Papers. Vol. 8247. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Tirri, Henry. 2006. “Challenges of Urban Sensing.” In Knowledge Discovery in Databases: PKDD 2006: 10th European Conference on Principles and Practice of Knowledge Discovery in Databases Berlin, Germany, September 18-22, 2006 Proceedings, edited by Johannes Fürnkranz, Tobias Scheffer, and Myra Spiliopoulou, 5–5. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Higher Education.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Petition For ‘Man Eating’ Tiger Relocation Dismissed By Court.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. National Airspace System: Observations on American Airlines’ 1997 Study of Future Air Traffic Congestion. RCED-99-66R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wheeler, Travis John. 2009. “Efficient Construction of Accurate Multiple Alignments and Large-Scale Phylogenies.” Doctoral dissertation, Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Castle, Stephen. 2017. “As Clock Ticks on Exit From E.U., Britain Seems Adrift.” New York Times, July 20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Veevers 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Veevers 2011; Petcherski and Kimble 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Petcherski and Kimble 2000)
  • Three authors: (Patek, Korff, and Caldwell 2004)
  • 4 or more authors: (Kim et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Higher Education
AbbreviationEur. J. High. Educ.
ISSN (print)2156-8235
ISSN (online)2156-8243

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