How to format your references using the Chem citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chem. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wunsch, C. (2000). Moon, tides and climate. Nature 405, 743–744.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhu, H., and Bunn, H.F. (2001). Signal transduction. How do cells sense oxygen? Science 292, 449–451.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wiser, M.J., Ribeck, N., and Lenski, R.E. (2013). Long-term dynamics of adaptation in asexual populations. Science 342, 1364–1367.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Libert, S., Zwiener, J., Chu, X., Vanvoorhies, W., Roman, G., and Pletcher, S.D. (2007). Regulation of Drosophila life span by olfaction and food-derived odors. Science 315, 1133–1137.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Halbich, I.W. (1993). Cape Fold Belt‐Agulhas Bank Transect Across Gondwana Suture, Southern Africa (American Geophysical Union).
An edited book
Reed, N., Green, J.A., Gershenson, D.M., Siddiqui, N., and Connor, R. eds. (2011). Rare and Uncommon Gynecological Cancers: A Clinical Guide (Springer).
A chapter in an edited book
Ukraintseva, S.V., Arbeev, K.G., Akushevich, I., Kulminski, A.M., Stallard, E., and Yashin, A.I. (2016). Factors That May Increase Vulnerability to Cancer and Longevity in Modern Human Populations. In Biodemography of Aging: Determinants of Healthy Life Span and Longevity The Springer Series on Demographic Methods and Population Analysis., E. Stallard and K. C. Land, eds. (Springer Netherlands), pp. 113–141.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chem.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2015). Divers Encounter Enormous Ocean Sunfish. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2011). Chemical Assessments: Challenges Remain with EPA’s Integrated Risk Information System Program (U.S. Government Printing Office).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vallaster, J.R. (2019). Recognizing and Supporting the Forgotten Poverty Frontier: Exploring Suburban School Poverty in Elementary Schools.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2011). Left on the Sideline as an Underdog Celebrates. New York Times, D7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 2,4.
This sentence cites four references 2,4,6,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleChem
ISSN (online)2451-9294
General Chemical Engineering
General Chemistry
Environmental Chemistry
Materials Chemistry
Biochemistry, medical

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