How to format your references using the Chem citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chem. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dubnau, J. (2012). Neuroscience. Ode to the mushroom bodies. Science 335, 664–665.
A journal article with 2 authors
Aanen, D.K., and Bisseling, T. (2014). Microbiology. The birth of cooperation. Science 345, 29–30.
A journal article with 3 authors
Maamar, H., Raj, A., and Dubnau, D. (2007). Noise in gene expression determines cell fate in Bacillus subtilis. Science 317, 526–529.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Zhang, X.-S., Yang, G.-X., Jiang, H., Liu, W.-J., and Ding, H.-S. (2013). Mass production of chemicals from biomass-derived oil by directly atmospheric distillation coupled with co-pyrolysis. Sci. Rep. 3, 1120.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ahmad, K. (2005). Sourcebook of ATM and IP Internetworking (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.).
An edited book
Del Bo, A., and Bignami, D.F. eds. (2014). Sustainable Social, Economic and Environmental Revitalization in Multan City: A Multidisciplinary Italian–Pakistani Project (Springer International Publishing).
A chapter in an edited book
Pech, S., and Goehner, P. (2010). Multi-agent Information Retrieval in Heterogeneous Industrial Automation Environments. In Agents and Data Mining Interaction: 6th International Workshop on Agents and Data Mining Interaction, ADMI 2010, Toronto, ON, Canada, May 11, 2010, Revised Selected Papers Lecture Notes in Computer Science., L. Cao, A. L. C. Bazzan, V. Gorodetsky, P. A. Mitkas, G. Weiss, and P. S. Yu, eds. (Springer), pp. 27–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chem.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016). Science Says Parents Of Successful Kids Have These 16 Things In Common. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993). Telecommunications: Interruptions of Telephone Service (U.S. Government Printing Office).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vatankhah, I. (2017). Purification of Industrial Grade Urea for diesel exhaust pollution reduction.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. (2014). Another Dutch Sweep Leaves Americans Baffled. New York Times, D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 2,4.
This sentence cites four references 2,4,6,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleChem
ISSN (online)2451-9294
General Chemical Engineering
General Chemistry
Environmental Chemistry
Materials Chemistry
Biochemistry, medical

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