How to format your references using the Chem citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chem. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stapnes, S. (2007). Detector challenges at the LHC. Nature 448, 290–296.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shapira, P., and Wang, J. (2010). Follow the money. Nature 468, 627–628.
A journal article with 3 authors
Heiling, A.M., Herberstein, M.E., and Chittka, L. (2003). Pollinator attraction: Crab-spiders manipulate flower signals. Nature 421, 334.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Ng, H.T., Li, J., Smith, M.K., Nguyen, P., Cassell, A., Han, J., and Meyyappan, M. (2003). Growth of epitaxial nanowires at the junctions of nanowalls. Science 300, 1249.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Plantin, J.-C. (2014). Participatory Mapping (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.).
An edited book
Deng, L. (2014). Developing Chinese EFL Learners’ Generic Competence: A Genre-based & Process Genre Approach Q. Chen and Y. Zhang, eds. (Springer).
A chapter in an edited book
Fishman, L.M., and Wilkins, A.N. (2011). Neurological Thoracic Outlet Syndrome: Approaching a Pathognomonic Sign. In Functional Electromyography: Provocative Maneuvers in Electrodiagnosis, A. N. Wilkins, ed. (Springer US), pp. 47–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chem.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014). Wolves Cooperate With Each Other, Dogs Form Hierarchies. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1977). Potential for Cost Reduction in Providing Message Refile Services Through DOD Telecommunications Centers (U.S. Government Printing Office).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Taylor, C. (2011). The Crowd.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson, G. (2014). Still Exerting a Hold on Science. New York Times, D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 2,4.
This sentence cites four references 2,4,6,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleChem
ISSN (online)2451-9294
General Chemical Engineering
General Chemistry
Environmental Chemistry
Materials Chemistry
Biochemistry, medical

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