How to format your references using the Chem citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chem. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mátyás, C. (2010). Forecasts needed for retreating forests. Nature 464, 1271.
A journal article with 2 authors
Grimmer, M.R., and Costello, J.F. (2016). Cancer: Oncogene brought into the loop. Nature 529, 34–35.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cacciuto, A., Auer, S., and Frenkel, D. (2004). Onset of heterogeneous crystal nucleation in colloidal suspensions. Nature 428, 404–406.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Foote, M., Crampton, J.S., Beu, A.G., Marshall, B.A., Cooper, R.A., Maxwell, P.A., and Matcham, I. (2007). Rise and fall of species occupancy in Cenozoic fossil mollusks. Science 318, 1131–1134.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Federer, W.T., and King, F. (2007). Variations on Split Plot and Split Block Experiment Designs: Federer/Variations on Split Plot and Split Block Experiment Designs (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.).
An edited book
Erozan, Y.S. (2014). Pulmonary Cytopathology 2nd ed. 2014. I. Ramzy, ed. (Boston, MA: Springer US).
A chapter in an edited book
Laghi, A., Paolantonio, P., Rengo, M., and Lucchesi, P. (2010). Artifacts in MR-Angiography. In MR Angiography of the Body Medical Radiology., E. Neri, M. Cosottini, and D. Caramella, eds. (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), pp. 27–33.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chem.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016). Dwarf Galaxies Made Half The Stars In The Early Universe. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1995). Interstate Commerce Commission: Budget and Other Impacts of Eliminating or Transferring Functions (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Li, J. (2015). Growth Prediction of New Fractures in the Shadows of Existing Hydraulic Fractures in Shale Gas Formations.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J. (2017). A Neighborhood Wants Its Historic District Expanded. New York Times, A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 2,4.
This sentence cites four references 2,4,6,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleChem
ISSN (online)2451-9294
General Chemical Engineering
General Chemistry
Environmental Chemistry
Materials Chemistry
Biochemistry, medical

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