How to format your references using the Process Safety and Environmental Protection citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Process Safety and Environmental Protection. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cyranoski, D., 2004. Will creativity thrive in an island paradise? Nature 429, 220–221.
A journal article with 2 authors
Collini, E., Scholes, G.D., 2009. Coherent intrachain energy migration in a conjugated polymer at room temperature. Science 323, 369–373.
A journal article with 3 authors
Runnels, L.W., Yue, L., Clapham, D.E., 2001. TRP-PLIK, a bifunctional protein with kinase and ion channel activities. Science 291, 1043–1047.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Whitney, H.M., Kolle, M., Andrew, P., Chittka, L., Steiner, U., Glover, B.J., 2009. Floral iridescence, produced by diffractive optics, acts as a cue for animal pollinators. Science 323, 130–133.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Doldi, L., 2005. Validation of Communications Systems with SDL. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Johnson, D.E. (Ed.), 2013. Cell Death Signaling in Cancer Biology and Treatment, Cell Death in Biology and Diseases. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Sourabh Joshi, Sarabjit Kaur, 2016. Ant Colony Optimization Meta-heuristic for Solving Real Travelling Salesman Problem, in: Shetty, N.R., Prasad, N.H., Nalini, N. (Eds.), Emerging Research in Computing, Information, Communication and Applications: ERCICA 2015, Volume 3. Springer, Singapore, pp. 55–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Process Safety and Environmental Protection.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2015. You Can Now Download Stephen Hawking’s Voice Software For Free [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2006. Telecommunications: Challenges to Assessing and Improving Telecommunications For Native Americans on Tribal Lands (No. GAO-06-189). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lord, V., 2015. Defining eating disorder recovery: A qualitative approach (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2011. 50 Years Later, Maris’s 61-Homer Season Looks Even Better. New York Times SP2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cyranoski, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Collini and Scholes, 2009; Cyranoski, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Collini and Scholes, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Whitney et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleProcess Safety and Environmental Protection
AbbreviationProcess Saf. Environ. Prot.
ISSN (print)0957-5820
ScopeGeneral Chemical Engineering
Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
Environmental Chemistry
Environmental Engineering

Other styles