How to format your references using the Process Safety and Environmental Protection citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Process Safety and Environmental Protection. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rousselle, T., 2004. Recruiters and industry. Dual competencies. Nature 430, 488.
A journal article with 2 authors
Watson, A.J.A., Williams, J.M.J., 2010. Chemistry. The give and take of alcohol activation. Science 329, 635–636.
A journal article with 3 authors
Howarth, R.W., Ingraffea, A., Engelder, T., 2011. Natural gas: Should fracking stop? Nature 477, 271–275.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Klein, E.M., Smith, D.K., Williams, C.M., Schouten, H., 2005. Counter-rotating microplates at the Galapagos triple junction. Nature 433, 855–858.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anderson, D., 2007. TKO Sales! John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Sauvaud, J.-A., Němeček, Z. (Eds.), 2005. Multiscale Processes in the Earth’s Magnetosphere: From Interball to Cluster, NATO Science Series II: Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Erozan, Y.S., Ramzy, I., 2014. Other Non-neoplastic Conditions, in: Ramzy, I. (Ed.), Pulmonary Cytopathology, Essentials in Cytopathology. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp. 87–99.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Process Safety and Environmental Protection.

Blog post
Hamilton, K., 2016. Why Scientists’ Failure To Understand GM Opposition Is Stifling Debate And Halting Progress [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1977. Federal Agencies’ Contracting for Research and Development in the Private, Profitmaking Sector (No. PSAD-77-66). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Verret, J.E., 2019. Property Tax Limitations, School District Revenues, and Equity: Analyses of Pennsylvania’s Act One (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Viera, M., 2010. Giants’ Manning Needs 12 Stitches After a Collision. New York Times B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rousselle, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Rousselle, 2004; Watson and Williams, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Watson and Williams, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Klein et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleProcess Safety and Environmental Protection
AbbreviationProcess Saf. Environ. Prot.
ISSN (print)0957-5820
ScopeGeneral Chemical Engineering
Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
Environmental Chemistry
Environmental Engineering

Other styles