How to format your references using the Process Safety and Environmental Protection citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Process Safety and Environmental Protection. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Varmus, H., 2006. The new era in cancer research. Science 312, 1162–1165.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wordsworth, R., Pierrehumbert, R., 2013. Hydrogen-nitrogen greenhouse warming in Earth’s early atmosphere. Science 339, 64–67.
A journal article with 3 authors
Assefa, S., Xia, F., Vlasov, Y.A., 2010. Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects. Nature 464, 80–84.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Shine, R., Phillips, B., Waye, H., LeMaster, M., Mason, R.T., 2001. Benefits of female mimicry in snakes. Nature 414, 267.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Knowles, R., 2008. 150 Contractual Problems and their Solutions. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Iqbal, S.M., Bashir, R. (Eds.), 2011. Nanopores: Sensing and Fundamental Biological Interactions. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Danielescu, A., Savio-Ramos, C., Sadauskas, J., 2013. Constructing an Embodied Interaction for Concept Mapping, in: Stephanidis, C. (Ed.), HCI International 2013 - Posters’ Extended Abstracts: International Conference, HCI International 2013, Las Vegas, NV, USA, July 21-26, 2013, Proceedings, Part II, Communications in Computer and Information Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 23–27.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Process Safety and Environmental Protection.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. The Low-Down On ‘Cold And Flu’ Tablets [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2014. Federal-Aid Highways: Federal Highway Administration Could Further Mitigate Locally Administered Project Risks (No. GAO-14-113). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mayo, J., 2010. Rates and factors associated with child maltreatment recurrence for children from birth to 5 years of age in Ventura County (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY, J., Mueller, B., Rojas, R., 2015. Witness Says Clash Over Witchcraft Preceded a Teenager’s Fatal Beating. New York Times A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Varmus, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Varmus, 2006; Wordsworth and Pierrehumbert, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wordsworth and Pierrehumbert, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Shine et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleProcess Safety and Environmental Protection
AbbreviationProcess Saf. Environ. Prot.
ISSN (print)0957-5820
ScopeGeneral Chemical Engineering
Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
Environmental Chemistry
Environmental Engineering

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