How to format your references using the European Journal of Heart Failure citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Heart Failure. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Duncan MJ. Planetary science: Preventing stars from eating their young. Nature 2015;520:40–41.
A journal article with 2 authors
Higgins SI, Scheiter S. Atmospheric CO2 forces abrupt vegetation shifts locally, but not globally. Nature 2012;488:209–212.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nir E, Kleinermanns K, Vries MS de. Pairing of isolated nucleic-acid bases in the absence of the DNA backbone. Nature 2000;408:949–951.
A journal article with 31 or more authors
Dolev M, Heiblum M, Umansky V, Stern A, Mahalu D. Observation of a quarter of an electron charge at the nu = 5/2 quantum Hall state. Nature 2008;452:829–834.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Primak SL, Kontorovich V. Wireless Multi-Antenna Channels. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
Visakh PM, Arao Y, eds. Flame Retardants: Polymer Blends, Composites and Nanocomposites. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Vinh DC, Embil JM. Prophylaxis of Endocarditis. In: Chan K-L, Embil JM, eds. Endocarditis: Diagnosis and Management Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 67–90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Heart Failure.

Blog post
Andrew D. Could Dragons On Westeros Fly? Aeronautical Engineering And Maths Say They Could. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016. (30 October 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Effects of Airline Entry Barriers on Fares. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990 Apr. Report No.: T-RCED-90-62.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grasis JA. Controlling T lymphocyte activation with a molecular rheostat [Doctoral dissertation]. [La Jolla, CA]: University of California San Diego; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. At Stadium, But Far From Roar Of Crowd. New York Times 2010;B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Heart Failure
AbbreviationEur. J. Heart Fail.
ISSN (print)1388-9842
ISSN (online)1879-0844
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Other styles