How to format your references using the European Journal of Heart Failure citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Heart Failure. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hooft G ’t. The making of the standard model. Nature 2007;448:271–273.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mattick JS, Gagen MJ. Mathematics/computation. Accelerating networks. Science 2005;307:856–858.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hiraga T, Anderson IM, Kohlstedt DL. Grain boundaries as reservoirs of incompatible elements in the Earth’s mantle. Nature 2004;427:699–703.
A journal article with 31 or more authors
Yakata S, Tanaka T, Kiseki K, Matsuyama K, Kimura T. Wide range tuning of resonant frequency for a vortex core in a regular triangle magnet. Sci Rep 2013;3:3567.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sanchez A, Carro B. Digital Services in the 21st Century. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
Thakuriah P (vonu). Transportation and Information: Trends in Technology and Policy. Geers DG, ed. New York, NY: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Belletti M, Leksinaj E. The Impact of Migration on Albanian Agriculture: A Snapshot. In: Karasavvoglou A, Aranđelović Z, Marinković S, Polychronidou P, eds. The First Decade of Living with the Global Crisis: Economic and Social Developments in the Balkans and Eastern Europe. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p47–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Heart Failure.

Blog post
Luntz S. 3D Printed Cast Speeds Bone Recovery Using Ultrasound. IFLScience. (30 October 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Challenge: Compliance Status Information on Biomedical Equipment

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pavuluri VK. Field Oriented Control of Induction Motors Based on DSP Controller

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. From Educators, Caution on Parent Fund-Raisers and Foundations. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Heart Failure
AbbreviationEur. J. Heart Fail.
ISSN (print)1388-9842
ISSN (online)1879-0844
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Other styles