How to format your references using the European Journal of Heart Failure citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Heart Failure. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rockey S. Transparency: Two years of blogging the NIH. Nature 2013;493:298–299.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stöhr K, Esveld M. Public health. Will vaccines be available for the next influenza pandemic? Science 2004;306:2195–2196.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sander R, Crutzen PJ, Glasow R von. Comment on ‘Reactions at interfaces as a source of sulfate formation in sea-salt particles’ (II). Science 2004;303:628; author reply 628.
A journal article with 31 or more authors
Chin JK, Miller DE, Liu Y, Stan C, Setiawan W, Sanner C, Xu K, Ketterle W. Evidence for superfluidity of ultracold fermions in an optical lattice. Nature 2006;443:961–964.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Khan RM. Problem Solving and Data Analysis using Minitab. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Ross DL, Chan TC, eds. Sudden Deaths in Custody. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Meduna A, Zemek P. Chapter 5 Rule-Based Grammatical Regulation. In: Zemek P, ed. Regulated Grammars and Automata. New York, NY: Springer; 2014. p155–187.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Heart Failure.

Blog post
Andrew E. How Minecraft Could Help Teach Chemistry’s Building Blocks Of Life. IFLScience. (30 October 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: Many Broadcasters Will Not Meet May 2002 Digital Television Deadline

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mayorga J. MSW students’ perception of mental health competence

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Great Pitching, Greater Expectations. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Heart Failure
AbbreviationEur. J. Heart Fail.
ISSN (print)1388-9842
ISSN (online)1879-0844
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Other styles