How to format your references using the European Journal for Security Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal for Security Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Steitz TA (2009) Retrospective. Frederic M. Richards (1925-2009). Science 323:1181
A journal article with 2 authors
Huismans R, Beaumont C (2011) Depth-dependent extension, two-stage breakup and cratonic underplating at rifted margins. Nature 473:74–78
A journal article with 3 authors
Neumann G, Noda T, Kawaoka Y (2009) Emergence and pandemic potential of swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus. Nature 459:931–939
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Shevchenko EV, Talapin DV, Kotov NA, et al (2006) Structural diversity in binary nanoparticle superlattices. Nature 439:55–59

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hill R, Solt G (2010) Engineering Money. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Gannon T, Fletcher M, Ball T (eds) (2005) Mack Scogin Merrill Elam: Knowlton Hall. Princeton Archit. Press, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Huseynova SA, Mahmudov H, Mustafayev II (2013) Photolysis of Hydrogen Sulfide in Gas Mixtures. In: Veziroğlu A, Tsitskishvili M (eds) Black Sea Energy Resource Development and Hydrogen Energy Problems. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 37–46

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal for Security Research.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) Plant Defense Hormones Build Healthy Microbiomes for Roots. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997) Federal Ships: Policy Changes in the Disposal of Surplus Ships. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Drake DA (2013) Viscoelastic characterization of vapor-grown carbon nanofiber/vinyl ester nanocomposites using a response surface methodology. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shultz GP, Aspe P (2017) Nafta Needs An Update, Not Repeal. New York Times A21

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Steitz 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Steitz 2009; Huismans and Beaumont 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Huismans and Beaumont 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Shevchenko et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal for Security Research
AbbreviationEur. J. Secur. Res.
ISSN (print)2365-0931
ISSN (online)2364-1695

Other styles