How to format your references using the European Journal for Security Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal for Security Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Livio M (2002) Astrophysical spouts: the jet set. Nature 417:125
A journal article with 2 authors
Gaudioso J, Salerno RM (2004) Science and government. Biosecurity and research: minimizing adverse impacts. Science 304:687
A journal article with 3 authors
Gunanathan C, Ben-David Y, Milstein D (2007) Direct synthesis of amides from alcohols and amines with liberation of H2. Science 317:790–792
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Langer F, Schmid CP, Schlauderer S, et al (2018) Lightwave valleytronics in a monolayer of tungsten diselenide. Nature 557:76–80

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pratt TH (2010) Electrostatic Ignitions of Fires and Explosions. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Purcell JE, Angel DL (eds) (2010) Jellyfish Blooms: New Problems and Solutions. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Powsner S (2015) Psychiatric Consultation in the Emergency Setting. In: Leigh H, Streltzer J (eds) Handbook of Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 39–62

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal for Security Research.

Blog post
Hamilton K (2016) Making Space Rocket Fuel From Water Could Drive A Power Revolution On Earth. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) Advance Sheets: Volume 72, Decisions of the Comptroller General of the United States. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bakirci A (2010) Proteomic analysis of hepatocyte proteins in response to in vivo iron overload. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Whiteside K (2017) Foes Get Together, and No One’s Fighting Like …. New York Times SP11

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Livio 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Livio 2002; Gaudioso and Salerno 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gaudioso and Salerno 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Langer et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal for Security Research
AbbreviationEur. J. Secur. Res.
ISSN (print)2365-0931
ISSN (online)2364-1695

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