How to format your references using the European Journal for Security Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal for Security Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kane G (2011) Particle physics is at a turning point. Nature 480:415
A journal article with 2 authors
Best RB, Hummer G (2009) Biochemistry. Unfolding the secrets of calmodulin. Science 323:593–594
A journal article with 3 authors
Lappala A, Zaccone A, Terentjev EM (2013) Ratcheted diffusion transport through crowded nanochannels. Sci Rep 3:3103
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Huang W, Ma K, Zhang J, et al (2006) Nuclear receptor-dependent bile acid signaling is required for normal liver regeneration. Science 312:233–236

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Choi N-E, Han JH (2015) How Flavor Works. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Donnellan B, Helfert M, Kenneally J, et al (eds) (2015) New Horizons in Design Science: Broadening the Research Agenda: 10th International Conference, DESRIST 2015, Dublin, Ireland, May 20-22, 2015, Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Cortier V (2009) Verification of Security Protocols. In: Jones ND, Müller-Olm M (eds) Verification, Model Checking, and Abstract Interpretation: 10th International Conference, VMCAI 2009, Savannah, GA, USA, January 18-20, 2009. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 5–13

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal for Security Research.

Blog post
Hale T (2017) Don’t Believe Your Eyes, These Strawberries Are Not Red. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1978) Office of Education’s Efforts To Recover Overpayments from Denver Indian Center. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sharma SP (2017) U.S. Government Program Managers’ Competencies to Manage Satellite Acquisition Programs. Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Glassman JK (2016) The G.O.P. Needs You: Vote Clinton. New York Times A21

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kane 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Best and Hummer 2009; Kane 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Best and Hummer 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Huang et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal for Security Research
AbbreviationEur. J. Secur. Res.
ISSN (print)2365-0931
ISSN (online)2364-1695

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