How to format your references using the European Journal for Security Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal for Security Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cantor G (2000) Fighting the wrong battle. Nature 403:831
A journal article with 2 authors
Cushing MC, Anseth KS (2007) Materials science. Hydrogel cell cultures. Science 316:1133–1134
A journal article with 3 authors
Brown T, Sibbett W, Wright EM (2001) Laser physics. Getting to grips with light. Science 293:1265–1267
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Kasahara S, Miyoshi Y, Yokota S, et al (2018) Pulsating aurora from electron scattering by chorus waves. Nature 554:337–340

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ma AD, Roberts HR, Escobar MA (2012) Hemophilia and Hemostasis. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Oxford
An edited book
Slavin MI (ed) (2011) Sustainability in America’s Cities: Creating the Green Metropolis. Island Press/Center for Resource Economics, Washington, DC
A chapter in an edited book
Luo ACJ (2012) Synchronization of Dynamical Systems in Sense of Metric Functionals of Specific Constraints. In: Luo ACJ, Sun J-Q (eds) Complex Systems: Fractionality, Time-delay and Synchronization. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 205–298

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal for Security Research.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Scientists Are Deep Sea Drilling To Learn More About Earthquakes And Tsunamis. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1972) Selected Contracts, Purchase Orders, and Grants Awarded to Indian Tribes and Organizations During Fiscal Year 1971. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Allard L (2006) Exposure to Low-Level Ionizing Radiation and Risk of Leukemia and Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma in Participants of the Fernald Medical Monitoring Program. Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper M (2017) National Opera Names General Director. New York Times C3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cantor 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Cantor 2000; Cushing and Anseth 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cushing and Anseth 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Kasahara et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal for Security Research
AbbreviationEur. J. Secur. Res.
ISSN (print)2365-0931
ISSN (online)2364-1695

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