How to format your references using the Ethnic and Racial Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ethnic and Racial Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Finney, Christopher. 2015. “Conservation Economics. Comment on ‘Using Ecological Thresholds to Evaluate the Costs and Benefits of Set-Asides in a Biodiversity Hotspot.’” Science (New York, N.Y.) 347 (6223): 731.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nishimura, Marc T., and Jeffery L. Dangl. 2014. “Plant Science. Paired Plant Immune Receptors.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 344 (6181): 267–268.
A journal article with 3 authors
Helled, Ravit, Eli Galanti, and Yohai Kaspi. 2015. “Saturn’s Fast Spin Determined from Its Gravitational Field and Oblateness.” Nature 520 (7546): 202–204.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Liu, Chia-I, George Y. Liu, Yongcheng Song, Fenglin Yin, Mary E. Hensler, Wen-Yih Jeng, Victor Nizet, Andrew H-J Wang, and Eric Oldfield. 2008. “A Cholesterol Biosynthesis Inhibitor Blocks Staphylococcus Aureus Virulence.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 319 (5868): 1391–1394.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Purkis, Samuel, and Victor Klemas. 2011. Remote Sensing and Global Environmental Change. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Greco, Alberto. 2016. Advances in Electrodermal Activity Processing with Applications for Mental Health: From Heuristic Methods to Convex Optimization. Edited by Gaetano Valenza and Enzo Pasquale Scilingo. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Seki, Sayuri, and Tetsuro Matano. 2013. “Development of Vaccines Using SeV Vectors Against AIDS and Other Infectious Diseases.” In Sendai Virus Vector: Advantages and Applications, edited by Yoshiyuki Nagai, 127–149. Tokyo: Springer Japan.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ethnic and Racial Studies.

Blog post
Hamilton, Kristy. 2017. “You Are Living Inside A Massive, Musical Instrument – And Here’s What It Sounds Like.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1990. Aircraft Maintenance: Potential Shortage in National Aircraft Repair Capacity. RCED-91-14. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dilenschneider, Anne Marie. 2010. “Refusing to Be Put aside: Women and the Meaning of Betrayal.” Doctoral dissertation, Carpinteria, CA: Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, Linda. 2005. “Death Penalty Case Gives A Clue to Alito’s Methods.” New York Times, November 16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Finney 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Finney 2015; Nishimura and Dangl 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nishimura and Dangl 2014)
  • Three authors: (Helled, Galanti, and Kaspi 2015)
  • 4 or more authors: (Liu et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleEthnic and Racial Studies
AbbreviationEthn. Racial Stud.
ISSN (print)0141-9870
ISSN (online)1466-4356
ScopeSociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies

Other styles