How to format your references using the Ethnic and Racial Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ethnic and Racial Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Heitman, Joseph. 2005. “Cell Biology. A Fungal Achilles’ Heel.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 309 (5744): 2175–2176.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vinson, Valda, and Elizabeth Pennisi. 2011. “Synthetic Biology. The Allure of Synthetic Biology. Introduction.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 333 (6047): 1235.
A journal article with 3 authors
Noda, S., A. Chutinan, and M. Imada. 2000. “Trapping and Emission of Photons by a Single Defect in a Photonic Bandgap Structure.” Nature 407 (6804): 608–610.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Verlet, J. R. R., A. E. Bragg, A. Kammrath, O. Cheshnovsky, and D. M. Neumark. 2005. “Comment on ‘Characterization of Excess Electrons in Water-Cluster Anions by Quantum Simulations.’” Science (New York, N.Y.) 310 (5755): 1769; author reply 1769.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Keedwell, Edward, and Ajit Narayanan. 2005. Intelligent Bioinformatics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Parenti-Castelli, Vincenzo, and Werner Schiehlen, eds. 2016. ROMANSY 21 - Robot Design, Dynamics and Control: Proceedings of the 21st CISM-IFToMM Symposium, June 20-23, Udine, Italy. Vol. 569. CISM International Centre for Mechanical Sciences, Courses and Lectures. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Der, Ralf, and Georg Martius. 2012. “Principles of Self-Regulation — Homeostasis.” In The Playful Machine: Theoretical Foundation and Practical Realization of Self-Organizing Robots, edited by Georg Martius, 59–74. Cognitive Systems Monographs. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ethnic and Racial Studies.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2014. “Black Hole Spinning at Half Light Speed.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2000. Social Security Administration: Year 2000 Readiness Efforts Helped Ensure Century Rollover and Leap Year Success. AIMD-00-125. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Oteng, Yaw. 2001. “Enquête Sur La Pluralité Culturelle: Identité et Marginalisation Dans Le Roman Francophone Colonial et Postcolonial (Chraïbi, Kane, Kourouma, Boudjedra, Ben Jelloun).” Doctoral dissertation, Cincinnati, OH: University of Cincinnati.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, Mary. 2010. “Baubles And Bags To Customize.” New York Times, September 16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Heitman 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Heitman 2005; Vinson and Pennisi 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vinson and Pennisi 2011)
  • Three authors: (Noda, Chutinan, and Imada 2000)
  • 4 or more authors: (Verlet et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleEthnic and Racial Studies
AbbreviationEthn. Racial Stud.
ISSN (print)0141-9870
ISSN (online)1466-4356
ScopeSociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies

Other styles