How to format your references using the Ethnic and Racial Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ethnic and Racial Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Underwood, Emily. 2015. “Neuroscience. A Faster, Brighter Picture of Brain Cells in Action.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 350 (6263): 895.
A journal article with 2 authors
Orme, Charisse M., and Jonathan S. Bogan. 2009. “Cell Biology. Sorting out Diabetes.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 324 (5931): 1155–1156.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hÿtch, Martin J., Jean-Luc Putaux, and Jean-Michel Pénisson. 2003. “Measurement of the Displacement Field of Dislocations to 0.03 A by Electron Microscopy.” Nature 423 (6937): 270–273.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Nagalakshmi, Ugrappa, Zhong Wang, Karl Waern, Chong Shou, Debasish Raha, Mark Gerstein, and Michael Snyder. 2008. “The Transcriptional Landscape of the Yeast Genome Defined by RNA Sequencing.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 320 (5881): 1344–1349.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dunne, Robert A. 2006. A Statistical Approach to Neural Networks for Pattern Recognition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Allen, Robert B., Jane Hunter, and Marcia L. Zeng, eds. 2015. Digital Libraries: Providing Quality Information: 17th International Conference on Asia-Pacific Digital Libraries, ICADL 2015, Seoul, Korea, December 9-12, 2015. Proceedings. 1st ed. 2015. Vol. 9469. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Reiner, Miriam. 2008. “Seeing Through Touch: The Role of Haptic Information in Visualization.” In Visualization: Theory and Practice in Science Education, edited by John K. Gilbert, Miriam Reiner, and Mary Nakhleh, 73–84. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ethnic and Racial Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Solar-Powered Drone Could Fly Nonstop For Five Years.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1994. Space Shuttle: Incomplete Data and Funding Approach Increase Cost Risk for Upgrade Program. NSIAD-94-23. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Spanier, Adam Jason. 2008. “The Relationship of Genes and Environment with Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Children with Asthma.” Doctoral dissertation, Cincinnati, OH: University of Cincinnati.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, Linda. 2006. “Roberts Court May Be Defined in Second Term.” New York Times, October 2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Underwood 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Underwood 2015; Orme and Bogan 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Orme and Bogan 2009)
  • Three authors: (Hÿtch, Putaux, and Pénisson 2003)
  • 4 or more authors: (Nagalakshmi et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleEthnic and Racial Studies
AbbreviationEthn. Racial Stud.
ISSN (print)0141-9870
ISSN (online)1466-4356
ScopeSociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies

Other styles