How to format your references using the Ethnic and Racial Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ethnic and Racial Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Offringa, Rienk. 2006. “Cancer. Cancer Immunotherapy Is More than a Numbers Game.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 314 (5796): 68–69.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thompson, D. W., and J. M. Wallace. 2001. “Regional Climate Impacts of the Northern Hemisphere Annular Mode.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 293 (5527): 85–89.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kim, Seyun, Pauline Wong, and Pierre A. Coulombe. 2006. “A Keratin Cytoskeletal Protein Regulates Protein Synthesis and Epithelial Cell Growth.” Nature 441 (7091): 362–365.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Ichiki, Kiyotomo, Keitaro Takahashi, Hiroshi Ohno, Hidekazu Hanayama, and Naoshi Sugiyama. 2006. “Cosmological Magnetic Field: A Fossil of Density Perturbations in the Early Universe.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 311 (5762): 827–829.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lindahl, David. 2008. Multi-Family Millions. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Cooper, Karyn, and Sardar M. Anwaruddin, eds. 2016. Student Voice: A Companion to Democracy and Its Discontents. Rotterdam: SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Sietsma, J. H., and J. G. H. Wessels. 2006. “Apical Wall Biogenesis.” In Growth, Differentiation and Sexuality, edited by Ursula Kües and Reinhard Fischer, 53–72. The Mycota. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ethnic and Racial Studies.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, Jonathan. 2017. “Google’s AlphaGo Just Beat The Chinese Grandmaster In A ‘God-Like’ Victory.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1988. Highway Contracting: Assessing Fraud and Abuse in FHwA’s Disadvantaged Business Enterprise Program. RCED-89-26. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brient, Robin. 2009. “Performance Considerations for Philippe Gaubert’s ‘Madrigal.’” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
As Told to. 2007. “WHY WE TRAVEL | MOSCOW.” New York Times, January 7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Offringa 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Offringa 2006; Thompson and Wallace 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Thompson and Wallace 2001)
  • Three authors: (Kim, Wong, and Coulombe 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Ichiki et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleEthnic and Racial Studies
AbbreviationEthn. Racial Stud.
ISSN (print)0141-9870
ISSN (online)1466-4356
ScopeSociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies

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