How to format your references using the Ethnic and Racial Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ethnic and Racial Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jayaraman, K. S. 2003. “India Budgets for Boost in Research.” Nature 422 (6927): 6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cheung, A. Y., and M. Wu H. 2001. “Plant Biology. Pollen Tube Guidance--Right on Target.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 293 (5534): 1441–1442.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, Chun, Olivier Rieppel, and Michael C. LaBarbera. 2004. “A Triassic Aquatic Protorosaur with an Extremely Long Neck.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 305 (5692): 1931.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Keller, Matthias, Birgit Lange, Kazuhiro Hayasaka, Wolfgang Lange, and Herbert Walther. 2004. “Continuous Generation of Single Photons with Controlled Waveform in an Ion-Trap Cavity System.” Nature 431 (7012): 1075–1078.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Thie, Paul R., and G. E. Keough. 2008. An Introduction to Linear Programming and Game Theory. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hameurlain, Abdelkader, Josef Küng, Roland Wagner, Hendrik Decker, Lenka Lhotska, and Sebastian Link, eds. 2016. Transactions on Large-Scale Data- and Knowledge-Centered Systems XXIV: Special Issue on Database- and Expert-Systems Applications. 1st ed. 2016. Vol. 9510. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Dupret, Georges, and Benjamin Piwowarski. 2006. “Principal Components for Automatic Term Hierarchy Building.” In String Processing and Information Retrieval: 13th International Conference, SPIRE 2006, Glasgow, UK, October 11-13, 2006. Proceedings, edited by Fabio Crestani, Paolo Ferragina, and Mark Sanderson, 37–48. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ethnic and Racial Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle. 2015. “15 Celebrities And Politicians Who Secretly Love Science.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2000. Tax Systems Modernization: Results of Review of IRS’ March 7, 2000, Expenditure Plan. AIMD-00-175. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ashrafzadeh, Mohammad H. 2008. “Provision of Community Services for the Mentally Challenged Population in Iran.” Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yablonsky, Linda. 2007. “Eye Spy.” New York Times, August 26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jayaraman 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Jayaraman 2003; Cheung and Wu H 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cheung and Wu H 2001)
  • Three authors: (Li, Rieppel, and LaBarbera 2004)
  • 4 or more authors: (Keller et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleEthnic and Racial Studies
AbbreviationEthn. Racial Stud.
ISSN (print)0141-9870
ISSN (online)1466-4356
ScopeSociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies

Other styles