How to format your references using the EPJ Techniques and Instrumentation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for EPJ Techniques and Instrumentation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gadagkar R (2004) Evolution. Sex...only if really necessary in a feminine monarchy. Science 306:1694–1695
A journal article with 2 authors
Schindler DE, Hilborn R (2015) Sustainability. Prediction, precaution, and policy under global change. Science 347:953–954
A journal article with 3 authors
Sheffield J, Wood EF, Roderick ML (2012) Little change in global drought over the past 60 years. Nature 491:435–438
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Adamczyk K, Prémont-Schwarz M, Pines D, et al (2009) Real-time observation of carbonic acid formation in aqueous solution. Science 326:1690–1694

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wesche R (2015) Physical Properties of High-Temperature Superconductors. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Terlaky T, Curtis FE (2012) Modeling and Optimization: Theory and Applications: Selected Contributions from the MOPTA 2010 Conference. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Ahmadi N, Bertrand B, Glaszmann J-C (2013) Rethinking Plant Breeding. In: Hainzelin É (ed) Cultivating Biodiversity to Transform Agriculture. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 91–140

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for EPJ Techniques and Instrumentation.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2017) Cassini Snaps Images Of Weird “Ravioli Moon” Pan Orbiting Saturn. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997) Federal Communications Commission: International Settlement Rates. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Parajuli B (2014) Students’ Motivations towards Volunteerism: A Comparative Study of the United States and Nepal. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J (2016) Marcia Clark Has Moment to Savor at Emmys. New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEPJ Techniques and Instrumentation
AbbreviationEPJ Tech. Instrum.
ISSN (online)2195-7045

Other styles