How to format your references using the EPJ Techniques and Instrumentation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for EPJ Techniques and Instrumentation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Woods CG (2004) Neuroscience. Crossing the midline. Science 304:1455–1456
A journal article with 2 authors
Miller L, Douglas BC (2004) Mass and volume contributions to twentieth-century global sea level rise. Nature 428:406–409
A journal article with 3 authors
Jiang Y, Kirmizialtin S, Sanchez IC (2014) Dynamic void distribution in myoglobin and five mutants. Sci Rep 4:4011
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Neumann CA, Krause DS, Carman CV, et al (2003) Essential role for the peroxiredoxin Prdx1 in erythrocyte antioxidant defence and tumour suppression. Nature 424:561–565

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
van Etten WC (2006) Introduction to Random Signals and Noise. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Dagum EB (2006) Benchmarking, Temporal Distribution, and Reconciliation Methods for Time Series. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Haghverdi E, Scott P (2011) Geometry of Interaction and the Dynamics of Proof Reduction: A Tutorial. In: Coecke B (ed) New Structures for Physics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 357–417

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for EPJ Techniques and Instrumentation.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) When Science Gets Ugly – The Story Of Philipp Lenard And Albert Einstein. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1971) Assessment of the Impact of the Teacher Corps Program at the University of Miami and Participating Schools in South Florida. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gelbart O (2008) Integrated hardware/software approaches to software security for embedded systems. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rojas R (2017) During Rikers Upheaval, the ‘Prettiest Village in Maine’ Beckoned. New York Times A17

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEPJ Techniques and Instrumentation
AbbreviationEPJ Tech. Instrum.
ISSN (online)2195-7045

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