How to format your references using the EPJ Techniques and Instrumentation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for EPJ Techniques and Instrumentation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Savage N (2011) Algae: The scum solution. Nature 474:S15-6
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Chakraborty A, Bandyopadhyay S (2013) FOGSAA: Fast Optimal Global Sequence Alignment Algorithm. Sci Rep 3:1746
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Xia X-M, Zeng X, Lingle CJ (2002) Multiple regulatory sites in large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. Nature 418:880–884
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Avinoam O, Fridman K, Valansi C, et al (2011) Conserved eukaryotic fusogens can fuse viral envelopes to cells. Science 332:589–592

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Danson E (2016) Drawing the Line. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
1.
Viamontes GF (2009) Quantum Circuit Simulation. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Han FX, Singer A (2007) Selective Sequential Dissolution For Trace Elements In Arid Zone Soils. In: Singer A (ed) Biogeochemistry of Trace Elements in Arid Environments. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 107–130

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for EPJ Techniques and Instrumentation.

Blog post
1.
Hale T (2016) The American Museum Of Natural History Cuts Financial Ties To Fossil Fuel Industry. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/environment/the-american-museum-of-natural-history-cuts-financial-ties-to-fossil-fuel-industry/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (2017) Indian Affairs: Further Actions Needed to Improve Oversight and Accountability for School Safety Inspections. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Bujarbarua V (2015) Production Optimization Using an In-Situ Steam Generator in a Rejuvenated Heavy Oil Field. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Wagner J (2017) Dodgers Crush Cubs, Winning Pennant for the First Time Since 1988. New York Times B9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEPJ Techniques and Instrumentation
AbbreviationEPJ Tech. Instrum.
ISSN (online)2195-7045
Scope

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