How to format your references using the EPJ Techniques and Instrumentation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for EPJ Techniques and Instrumentation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tokura Y (2006) Materials science. Multiferroics as quantum electromagnets. Science 312:1481–1482
A journal article with 2 authors
Wu J, Izpisua Belmonte JC (2014) Stem cells: A designer’s guide to pluripotency. Nature 516:172–173
A journal article with 3 authors
Huang X, Xu Y, Karato S-I (2005) Water content in the transition zone from electrical conductivity of wadsleyite and ringwoodite. Nature 434:746–749
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Chang LJ, Lees MR, Balakrishnan G, et al (2013) Low-temperature muon spin rotation studies of the monopole charges and currents in Y doped Ho2Ti2O7. Sci Rep 3:1881

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
van Vreeswijk M, Broersen J, Schurink G (2014) Mindfulness and Schema Therapy. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, UK
An edited book
Gaol FL (2013) Recent Progress in Data Engineering and Internet Technology: Volume 1. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Purać J, Kojić D, Petri E, et al (2016) Cold Adaptation Responses in Insects and Other Arthropods: An “Omics” Approach. In: Raman C, Goldsmith MR, Agunbiade TA (eds) Short Views on Insect Genomics and Proteomics: Insect Proteomics, Vol.2. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 89–112

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for EPJ Techniques and Instrumentation.

Blog post
Luntz S (2017) Handmade Centrifuge Can Fraction Blood And Detect Malaria. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2015) Information Technology: Copyright Office Needs To Develop Plans that Address Technical and Organizational Challenges. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zuckerman T (2017) The Effect of Communication Between Parents and their Emerging Adult Offspring on Depression and Career Search Self-efficacy. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S (2006) Beleaguered Russian Orchestra Tours U.S. New York Times B11

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEPJ Techniques and Instrumentation
AbbreviationEPJ Tech. Instrum.
ISSN (online)2195-7045

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