How to format your references using the EPJ Nonlinear Biomedical Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for EPJ Nonlinear Biomedical Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Brauman JI. Chemistry. Not so simple. Science. 2008;319:168.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Crombie AT, Murrell JC. Trace-gas metabolic versatility of the facultative methanotroph Methylocella silvestris. Nature. 2014;510:148–51.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Lavrentovich OD, Lazo I, Pishnyak OP. Nonlinear electrophoresis of dielectric and metal spheres in a nematic liquid crystal. Nature. 2010;467:947–50.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Boström KJ, de Lussanet MHE, Weiss T, Puta C, Wagner H. A computational model unifies apparently contradictory findings concerning phantom pain. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5298.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Joyner M. Integration Marketing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
1. Schaefer D, editor. Product Development in the Socio-sphere: Game Changing Paradigms for 21st Century Breakthrough Product Development and Innovation. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Verma N, Chandrakasan AP. Ultra Low Voltage SRAM Design. In: Zhang K, editor. Embedded Memories for Nano-Scale VLSIs. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2009. p. 89–126.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for EPJ Nonlinear Biomedical Physics.

Blog post
1. Carpineti A. Tree Ring Growth During Solar Storms Can Date Events In the Ancient World [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. DOD Personnel: More Accurate Estimate of Overdue Security Clearance Reinvestigations Is Needed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000 Sep. Report No.: T-NSIAD-00-246.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Lemay M. Understanding the mechanism of panel attrition [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Otis J. Bypassing Stigma to Take Care of Herself and a Daughter Like Her. New York Times. 2016 Dec 26;A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEPJ Nonlinear Biomedical Physics
ISSN (online)2195-0008

Other styles