How to format your references using the EPJ Nonlinear Biomedical Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for EPJ Nonlinear Biomedical Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Hunt ML. Applied physics. Robotic walking in the real world. Science. 2013;339:1389–90.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Liu HY, Gao X. A universal protein tag for delivery of SiRNA-aptamer chimeras. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3129.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Swiontek SE, Pulsifer DP, Lakhtakia A. Optical sensing of analytes in aqueous solutions with a multiple surface-plasmon-polariton-wave platform. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1409.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Perea GB, Riekel C, Guinea GV, Madurga R, Daza R, Burghammer M, et al. Identification and dynamics of polyglycine II nanocrystals in Argiope trifasciata flagelliform silk. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3061.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Primak SL, Kontorovich V. Wireless Multi-Antenna Channels. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
1. Norris SP, editor. Reading for Evidence and Interpreting Visualizations in Mathematics and Science Education. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Doicu A, Schuh R, Wriedt T. Scattering by particles on or near a plane surface. In: Kokhanovsky AA, editor. Light Scattering Reviews 3: Light Scattering and Reflection. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 109–30.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for EPJ Nonlinear Biomedical Physics.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Gene That Sends Roots Downwards Could Save Barley From Drought [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Strategic Bombers: B-2 Program Status and Current Issues. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990 Feb. Report No.: NSIAD-90-120.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Gonzales RA. Health care team effectiveness: The relationship between team task interdependence and group emotional competence [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Cunningham J. Spotting Celebrities on His Lunch Break. New York Times. 2017 Jun 8;A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEPJ Nonlinear Biomedical Physics
ISSN (online)2195-0008

Other styles