How to format your references using the Epileptology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Epileptology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hallonsten O. Europe needs fresh focus on big-science projects. Nature. 2015 Feb 19;518(7539):275.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ren B-C, Deng F-G. Hyper-parallel photonic quantum computation with coupled quantum dots. Sci Rep. 2014 Apr 11;4:4623.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mendoza M, Succi S, Herrmann HJ. Flow through randomly curved manifolds. Sci Rep. 2013 Oct 31;3:3106.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Posé N, Schrenk KJ, Araújo NAM, Herrmann HJ. Shortest path and Schramm-Loewner evolution. Sci Rep. 2014 Jun 30;4:5495.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bachmutsky A. System Design for Telecommunication Gateways. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010.
An edited book
Sassone V, editor. Foundations of Software Science and Computational Structures: 8th International Conference, FOSSACS 2005, Held as Part of the Joint European Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, ETAPS 2005, Edinburgh, UK, April 4-8, 2005. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 3441).
A chapter in an edited book
Andrew P, Montenero AS. Cryocatheter Ablation for Atrial Flutter. In: Gulizia MM, editor. Current News in Cardiology: Proceedings of the Mediterranean Cardiology Meeting (Taormina, May 20–22, 2007). Milano: Springer; 2007. p. 29–40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Epileptology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Stars With Planets On Strange Orbits: What’s Going On? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: TSA Is Increasing Procurement and Deployment of the Advanced Imaging Technology, but Challenges to This Effort and Other Areas of Aviation Security Remain. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010 Mar. Report No.: GAO-10-484T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Patel DS. GoSchoolPro: A Web Portal for the Students Using MVC Architecture and ASP.NET Framework [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. Rebate Checks to Lose Their Punch This Year. New York Times. 2008 Oct 5;LI6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hallonsten 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Ren and Deng 2014; Hallonsten 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ren and Deng 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Posé et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEpileptology
ISSN (print)2212-8220
ScopeClinical Neurology

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