How to format your references using the Epileptology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Epileptology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hirth G. Earth science: Missing link in mantle dynamics. Nature. 2014 Mar 6;507(7490):42–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Castanotto D, Rossi JJ. The promises and pitfalls of RNA-interference-based therapeutics. Nature. 2009 Jan 22;457(7228):426–33.
A journal article with 3 authors
Álvarez GA, Suter D, Kaiser R. QUANTUM SIMULATION. Localization-delocalization transition in the dynamics of dipolar-coupled nuclear spins. Science. 2015 Aug 21;349(6250):846–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sorrentino V, Romani M, Mouchiroud L, Beck JS, Zhang H, D’Amico D, et al. Enhancing mitochondrial proteostasis reduces amyloid-β proteotoxicity. Nature. 2017 Dec 14;552(7684):187–93.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fischer DJ, Treister NS, Pinto A. Risk Assessment and Oral Diagnostics in Clinical Dentistry. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Hart LC, Alston AS, Murata A, editors. Lesson Study Research and Practice in Mathematics Education: Learning Together. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Bodyanskiy Y, Vynokurova O, Pliss I, Peleshko D, Rashkevych Y. Hybrid Generalized Additive Wavelet-Neuro-Fuzzy-System and Its Adaptive Learning. In: Zamojski W, Mazurkiewicz J, Sugier J, Walkowiak T, Kacprzyk J, editors. Dependability Engineering and Complex Systems: Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Dependability and Complex Systems DepCoS-RELCOMEX June 27–July 1, 2016, Brunów, Poland. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 51–61. (Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Epileptology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Is The Solid Crust In North America Really So Stable? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Programs at the U.S. Army School of the Americas in Panama. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1975 Nov. Report No.: ID-76-27.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Verkaik P. Enhancing networking protocols in widely deployed devices [Doctoral dissertation]. [La Jolla, CA]: University of California San Diego; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Court Sets Fall Debate On Standards Of Water Act. New York Times. 2008 Apr 15;A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hirth 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Castanotto and Rossi 2009; Hirth 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Castanotto and Rossi 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Sorrentino et al. 2017)

About the journal

Full journal titleEpileptology
ISSN (print)2212-8220
ScopeClinical Neurology

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