How to format your references using the Epileptology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Epileptology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bradley A. Mining the mouse genome. Nature. 2002 Dec 5;420(6915):512–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Roberts RG, Brook BW. Paleontology. And then there were none? Science. 2010 Jan 22;327(5964):420–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hollingsworth RG, Armstrong JW, Campbell E. Caffeine as a repellent for slugs and snails. Nature. 2002 Jun 27;417(6892):915–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Li Y, Guo Q, Kalb JA, Thompson CV. Matching glass-forming ability with the density of the amorphous phase. Science. 2008 Dec 19;322(5909):1816–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Alberty RA. Enzyme Kinetics: Rapid-Equilibrium Enzyme Kinetics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011. (Methods of Biochemical Analysis).
An edited book
Blandina P, Passani MB, editors. Histamine Receptors: Preclinical and Clinical Aspects. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. (The Receptors; vol. 28).
A chapter in an edited book
Malek SK, Tullius SG. Surgical Management of the Renal Transplant Recipient. In: Chandraker A, Sayegh MH, Singh AK, editors. Core Concepts in Renal Transplantation. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2012. p. 85–96.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Epileptology.

Blog post
Luntz S. Double Positive Signs For Triple Negative Breast Cancer [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. University Funding: Federal Funding Mechanisms in Support of University Research. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1986 Feb. Report No.: RCED-86-53.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Khojandi N. Investigating Secondary Infections and their Impact on Host Fitness in the Dictyostelium-Burkholderia Symbiosis System [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Job Bias Case Turns on Filing Right Form. New York Times. 2007 Nov 7;A25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bradley 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Bradley 2002; Roberts and Brook 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Roberts and Brook 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleEpileptology
ISSN (print)2212-8220
ScopeClinical Neurology

Other styles