How to format your references using the Epileptology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Epileptology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ramirez A. The making of a science evangelist. Science. 2015 May 8;348(6235):726.
A journal article with 2 authors
Renshaw CE, Schulson EM. Universal behaviour in compressive failure of brittle materials. Nature. 2001 Aug 30;412(6850):897–900.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gürerk O, Irlenbusch B, Rockenbach B. The competitive advantage of sanctioning institutions. Science. 2006 Apr 7;312(5770):108–11.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Pushp A, Parker CV, Pasupathy AN, Gomes KK, Ono S, Wen J, et al. Extending universal nodal excitations optimizes superconductivity in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+delta. Science. 2009 Jun 26;324(5935):1689–93.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rankin J. Effects of Antenatal Exercise on Psychological Well-Being, Pregnancy and Birth Outcome. Philadelphia, PA, USA: Whurr Publishers Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
Becerra HM. Visual Control of Wheeled Mobile Robots: Unifying Vision and Control in Generic Approaches. Sagüés C, editor. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. (Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics; vol. 103).
A chapter in an edited book
Ditterline J, Oakland T. Relationships Between Adaptive Behavior and Impairment. In: Naglieri J, Goldstein S, editors. Assessing Impairment: From Theory to Practice. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2009. p. 31–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Epileptology.

Blog post
Carpineti A. An Underground Instrument Will Measure How Much Earth Drags Spacetime [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Air Traffic Control: Status of FAA’s Plans to Close and Contract Out Low-Activity Towers. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Sep. Report No.: RCED-94-265.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pecue CJ. Utilizing Audiovisual Stimuli in the Classroom to Facilitate Pronunciation of French Stop Consonants [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crane AT, Hay G. All Is Sparkly For Tiffany. New York Times. 2010 Nov 25;B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ramirez 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Renshaw and Schulson 2001; Ramirez 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Renshaw and Schulson 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Pushp et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleEpileptology
ISSN (print)2212-8220
ScopeClinical Neurology

Other styles