How to format your references using the Epileptology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Epileptology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Müller MM. Object processing in the infant brain. Science. 2001 Apr 13;292(5515):163.
A journal article with 2 authors
Francesconi M, Lehner B. The effects of genetic variation on gene expression dynamics during development. Nature. 2014 Jan 9;505(7482):208–11.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schmidt MW, Vautravers MJ, Spero HJ. Rapid subtropical North Atlantic salinity oscillations across Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles. Nature. 2006 Oct 5;443(7111):561–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Matsuzaki M, Honkura N, Ellis-Davies GCR, Kasai H. Structural basis of long-term potentiation in single dendritic spines. Nature. 2004 Jun 17;429(6993):761–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Coe JT. Unlikely Victory: How General Electric Succeeded in the Chemical Industry. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2000.
An edited book
Ahmad SI. Molecular Mechanisms of Fanconi Anemia. Kirk SH, editor. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2006. (Medical Intelligence Unit).
A chapter in an edited book
Lee MC, Cho SB. A Recurrent Neural Network with Non-gesture Rejection Model for Recognizing Gestures with Smartphone Sensors. In: Maji P, Ghosh A, Murty MN, Ghosh K, Pal SK, editors. Pattern Recognition and Machine Intelligence: 5th International Conference, PReMI 2013, Kolkata, India, December 10-14, 2013 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 40–6. (Hutchison D, Kanade T, Kittler J, Kleinberg JM, Mattern F, Mitchell JC, et al., editors. Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Epileptology.

Blog post
Hale T. Hurricane Matthew Unearthed These Hidden Civil War Cannonballs In South Carolina [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Limited English Proficiency: A Growing and Costly Educational Challenge Facing Many School Districts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Jan. Report No.: HEHS-94-38.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hatton JD. The Changing Dynamics of Health Care: Physician Perceptions of Technology in Medical Practices [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B. A Star Still Airlifts the Show. New York Times. 2017 Mar 24;C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Müller 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Müller 2001; Francesconi and Lehner 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Francesconi and Lehner 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Matsuzaki et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleEpileptology
ISSN (print)2212-8220
ScopeClinical Neurology

Other styles