How to format your references using the Epileptology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Epileptology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Powell K. Molecular oncology: The positive in the negative. Nature. 2012 May 30;485(7400):S52-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ziauddin J, Sabatini DM. Microarrays of cells expressing defined cDNAs. Nature. 2001 May 3;411(6833):107–10.
A journal article with 3 authors
Solanki SK, Schüssler M, Fligge M. Evolution of the Sun’s large-scale magnetic field since the Maunder minimum. Nature. 2000 Nov 23;408(6811):445–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sui H, Han BG, Lee JK, Walian P, Jap BK. Structural basis of water-specific transport through the AQP1 water channel. Nature. 2001;414(6866):872–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Swatton PJ. Principles of Flight for Pilots. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010.
An edited book
Lee GG, Song D, Lin CY, Aizawa A, Kuriyama K, Yoshioka M, et al., editors. Information Retrieval Technology: 5th Asia Information Retrieval Symposium, AIRS 2009, Sapporo, Japan, October 21-23, 2009. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 5839).
A chapter in an edited book
Fernández-Marcos M, Sanz L, Lewis DR, Muday GK, Lorenzo O. Control of Auxin Transport by Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species. In: Chen R, Baluška F, editors. Polar Auxin Transport. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 103–17. (Signaling and Communication in Plants).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Epileptology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Astronomers Capture A Rare Wolf-Rayet Star Just Hours After It Dramatically Explodes [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Youth Training. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Sep. Report No.: PEMD-94-32R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stahlhut CW. Aerodynamic design optimization of proprotors for convertible-rotor concepts [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Park LS. Endangered Daughters. New York Times. 2013 May 12;BR21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Powell 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Ziauddin and Sabatini 2001; Powell 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ziauddin and Sabatini 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Sui et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleEpileptology
ISSN (print)2212-8220
ScopeClinical Neurology

Other styles