How to format your references using the Epilepsy Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Epilepsy Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kondoh, M., 2003. Foraging adaptation and the relationship between food-web complexity and stability. Science 299, 1388–1391.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wilson, R.I., Nicoll, R.A., 2002. Endocannabinoid signaling in the brain. Science 296, 678–682.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang, Q., Li, Y., Tsien, R.W., 2009. The dynamic control of kiss-and-run and vesicular reuse probed with single nanoparticles. Science 323, 1448–1453.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lartigue, C., Glass, J.I., Alperovich, N., Pieper, R., Parmar, P.P., Hutchison, C.A., 3rd, Smith, H.O., Venter, J.C., 2007. Genome transplantation in bacteria: changing one species to another. Science 317, 632–638.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Darling-Hammond, L., Meyerson, D., LaPointe, M., Terry Orr, M., Barber, M., Cohen, C., Dailey, K., Davis, S., Flessa, J., Murphy, J., Pecheone, R., Tushnet, N., 2009. Preparing Principals for a Changing World. Jossey-Bas, San Francisco, CA, USA.
An edited book
Kasch, F., 2009. Regularity and Substructures of Hom, Frontiers in Mathematics. Birkhäuser, Basel.
A chapter in an edited book
Udovyk, O., 2006. GIS FOR INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT, in: Hlavinek, P., Kukharchyk, T., Marsalek, J., Mahrikova, I. (Eds.), Integrated Urban Water Resources Management, NATO Security through Science Series. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 35–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Epilepsy Research.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016. Someone Has Rewritten “Fifty Shades Of Grey” For Geeks, And It’s Absolutely Hilarious [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1993. Test and Evaluation: DOD Has Been Slow In Improving Testing of Software-Intensive Systems (No. NSIAD-93-198). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Haffner, I., 2017. Experimental Investigation of Temperature Dependency in Transmission Characteristics of Liquid Crystals by Spectroscopy (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L., 2007. Nassau Coliseum Moves Closer to Renovation. New York Times LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kondoh, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Kondoh, 2003; Wilson and Nicoll, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wilson and Nicoll, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Lartigue et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleEpilepsy Research
AbbreviationEpilepsy Res.
ISSN (print)0920-1211
ScopeClinical Neurology

Other styles