How to format your references using the Epilepsy Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Epilepsy Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P., 2002. A decisive effort? Nature 418, 3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nori, F., Tonomura, A., 2006. Applied physics. Helical spin order on the move. Science 311, 344–345.
A journal article with 3 authors
Balazs, A.C., Emrick, T., Russell, T.P., 2006. Nanoparticle polymer composites: where two small worlds meet. Science 314, 1107–1110.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
He, H., Bourges, P., Sidis, Y., Ulrich, C., Regnault, L.P., Pailhès, S., Berzigiarova, N.S., Kolesnikov, N.N., Keimer, B., 2002. Magnetic resonant mode in the single-layer high-temperature superconductor Tl2Ba2CuO(6+delta). Science 295, 1045–1047.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Svensson, H., 2011. Schrägkabelbrücken. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Logozzo, F., Peled, D.A., Zuck, L.D. (Eds.), 2008. Verification, Model Checking, and Abstract Interpretation: 9th International Conference, VMCAI 2008, San Francisco, USA, January 7-9, 2008. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Díaz, C., Martín, F., 2013. Using Molecular Reflectivity to Explore Reaction Dynamics at Metal Surfaces, in: Díez Muiño, R., Busnengo, H.F. (Eds.), Dynamics of Gas-Surface Interactions: Atomic-Level Understanding of Scattering Processes at Surfaces, Springer Series in Surface Sciences. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 75–100.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Epilepsy Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Why we need volunteers for the first human Ebola trials [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2002. Electronic Government: Challenges to Effective Adoption of the Extensible Markup Language (No. GAO-02-327). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Freund, S.H., 2013. The Relationship of Academic Courses to Skills Required Of Automobile Repair Technicians (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
James, G., 2000. Talking and Driving: Growing Road Menace? New York Times 14NJ1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Nori and Tonomura, 2006; Smaglik, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nori and Tonomura, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (He et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleEpilepsy Research
AbbreviationEpilepsy Res.
ISSN (print)0920-1211
ScopeClinical Neurology

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