How to format your references using the Epilepsy Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Epilepsy Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Salo, H., 2011. Astronomy. Twisted disks. Science 332, 672–673.
A journal article with 2 authors
Singh, R., Cresswell, P., 2010. Defective cross-presentation of viral antigens in GILT-free mice. Science 328, 1394–1398.
A journal article with 3 authors
Belmonte, A., Di Clemente, R., Buldyrev, S.V., 2014. The Italian primary school-size distribution and the city-size: a complex nexus. Sci. Rep. 4, 5301.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Richardson, J.E., Pennington, R.T., Pennington, T.D., Hollingsworth, P.M., 2001. Rapid diversification of a species-rich genus of neotropical rain forest trees. Science 293, 2242–2245.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barnes, P., 2008. The JCT 05 Standard Building Sub-Contract. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Allen, R., 2006. Windows Server 2003 Networking Recipes. Apress, Berkeley, CA.
A chapter in an edited book
Chesney, M., Gheyssens, J., Pana, A.C., Taschini, L., 2016. Economic Growth and the Environment, in: Gheyssens, J., Pana, A.C., Taschini, L. (Eds.), Environmental Finance and Investments, Springer Texts in Business and Economics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 73–101.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Epilepsy Research.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2017. Perhaps Porn Doesn’t Make Men Fall Out of Love After All [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2012. Intelligent Transportation Systems: Improved DOT Collaboration and Communication Could Enhance the Use of Technology to Manage Congestion (No. GAO-12-308). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Flannery, R., 2006. Clustering of Cyclic-Nucleotide-Gated Channels in Olfactory Cilia (Doctoral dissertation). University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cowley, S., 2016. Wells Fargo Workers Claim Retaliation for Playing by the Rules. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Salo, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Salo, 2011; Singh and Cresswell, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Singh and Cresswell, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Richardson et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleEpilepsy Research
AbbreviationEpilepsy Res.
ISSN (print)0920-1211
ScopeClinical Neurology

Other styles