How to format your references using the Epigenomics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Epigenomics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Check E. US debates future of Iraqi scientists. Nature. 422(6934), 789 (2003).
A journal article with 2 authors
Enserink M, Chin G. The end of privacy. Introduction. Science. 347(6221), 490–491 (2015).
A journal article with 3 authors
Spencer JP, Dineva E, Smith LB. Comment on “Infants’ perseverative search errors are induced by pragmatic misinterpretation.” Science. 325(5948), 1624; author reply 1624 (2009).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhang Y, Yu L, Cai W, et al. Protopanaxatriol, a novel PPARγ antagonist from Panax ginseng, alleviates steatosis in mice. Sci. Rep. 4, 7375 (2014).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jarry P, Beneat J. Advanced Design Techniques and Realizations of Microwave and RF Filters. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Richet X, Delteil V, Dieuaide P, editors. Strategies of Multinational Corporations and Social Regulations: European and Asian Perspectives. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Kapetanakis S, Petridis M. Evaluating a Case-Based Reasoning Architecture for the Intelligent Monitoring of Business Workflows. In: Successful Case-based Reasoning Applications-2. Montani S, Jain LC (Eds.), Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 43–54 (2014).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Epigenomics.

Blog post
Andrew D. Miniature Black Holes May Be Hitting Earth Once Every 1,000 Years [Internet]. IFLScience (2016). Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Airport Finance: Observations on Planned Airport Development Costs and Funding Levels and the Administration’s Proposed Changes in the Airport Improvement Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Le Blanc JD. Helping African American Middle School Students Transition to High School with the New Normal Project: A Grant Proposal. (2017).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly R. Postmodern Conveniences. New York Times, 724 (2002).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEpigenomics
ISSN (print)1750-1911
ISSN (online)1750-192X
ScopeCancer Research

Other styles