How to format your references using the Environmental Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Butterworth, A., 2014. The moral problem with commercial seal hunting. Nature 509, 9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Siomi, H., Siomi, M.C., 2015. RNA. Phased piRNAs tackle transposons. Science 348, 756–757.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tran, J., Brenner, T.J., DiNardo, S., 2000. Somatic control over the germline stem cell lineage during Drosophila spermatogenesis. Nature 407, 754–757.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Noble, P.W., Young, M.R., Bernatsky, S., Weisbart, R.H., Hansen, J.E., 2014. A nucleolytic lupus autoantibody is toxic to BRCA2-deficient cancer cells. Sci. Rep. 4, 5958.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kissell, J., 2009. Mac® Security Bible. Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA.
An edited book
Roy, H.E., Vega, F.E., Chandler, D., Goettel, M.S., Pell, J., Wajnberg, E. (Eds.), 2010. The Ecology of Fungal Entomopathogens. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Dorey, P., Garnett, M., 2016. Welfare Reform, in: Garnett, M. (Ed.), The British Coalition Government, 2010-2015: A Marriage of Inconvenience. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, pp. 137–178.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Research.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2015. Skeletons From 400-Year-Old Gravesite Identified As Jamestown Leaders [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1997. Intellectual Property: Comparison of Patent Examination Statistics for Fiscal Years 1994 and 1995 (No. RCED-97-58). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eldanaf, R.G., 2012. Angry Cherub (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chira, S., 2017. For Mothers Seeking Office, a Familiar Double Standard. New York Times A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Butterworth, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Butterworth, 2014; Siomi and Siomi, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Siomi and Siomi, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Noble et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Research
AbbreviationEnviron. Res.
ISSN (print)0013-9351
General Environmental Science

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