How to format your references using the Environmental Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grady, E.F., 2007. Cell signaling. Beta-arrestin, a two-fisted terminator. Science 315, 605–606.
A journal article with 2 authors
Morata, G., Ballesteros-Arias, L., 2014. Developmental Biology. Death to the losers. Science 346, 1181–1182.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ahn, C.H., Triscone, J.-M., Mannhart, J., 2003. Electric field effect in correlated oxide systems. Nature 424, 1015–1018.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Long, J.A., Ohno, C., Smith, Z.R., Meyerowitz, E.M., 2006. TOPLESS regulates apical embryonic fate in Arabidopsis. Science 312, 1520–1523.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kovalenko, N.P., Krasny, Y.P., Krey, U., 2005. Physics of Amorphous Metals. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG.
An edited book
Liu, H., Salerno, J.J., Young, M.J. (Eds.), 2008. Social Computing, Behavioral Modeling, and Prediction. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Chen, J.Z.M., Ji, Y., 2016. Paul Yee’s Daoist and Confucian Ethics and Values, in: Ji, Y. (Ed.), Canadian-Daoist Poetics, Ethics, and Aesthetics: An Interdisciplinary and Cross-Cultural Study. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 73–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Research.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2015. Caterpillars Disarm Corn With Their Poop [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1995. Advance Sheets: Volume 74, Decisions of the Comptroller General of the United States (No. OGC-95-6). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vega Aguirre, J.C., 2008. Study of small business leadership as a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J., 2017. Selling Us a Better Vision of Ourselves. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Grady, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Grady, 2007; Morata and Ballesteros-Arias, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Morata and Ballesteros-Arias, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Long et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Research
AbbreviationEnviron. Res.
ISSN (print)0013-9351
General Environmental Science

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