How to format your references using the Environmental Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sherman, W., 2009. Materials science. Building a better nano-biped. Science 324, 46–47.
A journal article with 2 authors
Camilli, A., Bassler, B.L., 2006. Bacterial small-molecule signaling pathways. Science 311, 1113–1116.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lopinski, G.P., Wayner, D.D., Wolkow, R.A., 2000. Self-directed growth of molecular nanostructures on silicon. Nature 406, 48–51.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Liu, R., Chen, Q., Dong, B., Yu, F., 2014. Effects of vegetative propagule pressure on the establishment of an introduced clonal plant, Hydrocotyle vulgaris. Sci. Rep. 4, 5507.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cunningham, V., 2011. Victorian Poetry Now. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Forsyth, D., Torr, P., Zisserman, A. (Eds.), 2008. Computer Vision – ECCV 2008: 10th European Conference on Computer Vision, Marseille, France, October 12-18, 2008, Proceedings, Part II, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Schwarz, T., Grossmann, M., Nicklas, D., Mitschang, B., 2007. Exploiting Type and Space in a Main Memory Query Engine, in: Davis, C.A., Monteiro, A.M.V. (Eds.), Advances in Geoinformatics: VIII Brazilian Symposium on GeoInformatics, GEOINFO 2006, Campos Do Jordão (SP), Brazil, November 19–22, 2006. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 47–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Research.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2014. Killer Squirrel has World’s Bushiest Tail [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1992. Department of Education Grant Award (No. HRD-93-8R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thirumal, V.M., 2017. Production of Microbial Lipids from Lipomyces starkeyi (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
George, R., 2010. ... And Sewage, Too. New York Times A25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sherman, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Camilli and Bassler, 2006; Sherman, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Camilli and Bassler, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Research
AbbreviationEnviron. Res.
ISSN (print)0013-9351
General Environmental Science

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