How to format your references using the Environmental Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dewandre, N., 2002. Women in science. European strategies for promoting women in science. Science 295, 278–279.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ho, W.C.G., Heinke, C.O., 2009. A neutron star with a carbon atmosphere in the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant. Nature 462, 71–73.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dominguez, P., Jacobson, A.G., Jefferies, R.P.S., 2002. Paired gill slits in a fossil with a calcite skeleton. Nature 417, 841–844.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Stemmler, K., Ammann, M., Donders, C., Kleffmann, J., George, C., 2006. Photosensitized reduction of nitrogen dioxide on humic acid as a source of nitrous acid. Nature 440, 195–198.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
American Institute of Timber Constr, 2012. Timber Construction Manual. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Adams, V.R., Burke, T.G. (Eds.), 2005. Camptothecins in Cancer Therapy, Cancer Drug Discovery and Development. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ.
A chapter in an edited book
Mansour, S., Magnan, J., Haidar, H., Nicolas, K., Louryan, S., 2013. The Mastoid, in: Magnan, J., Haidar, H., Nicolas, K., Louryan, S. (Eds.), Comprehensive and Clinical Anatomy of the Middle Ear. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 105–122.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Research.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2016. One In Ten UK Species At Threat Of Extinction [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2001. Student Discipline: Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (No. GAO-01-210). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wheeler, J.A., 2012. The Scaling of High Harmonics with Mid-Infrared Driving Fields and a Method for the Spatial Isolation of Individual Subfemtosecond Pulses (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B., 2017. No. 1, but Not at the Top of Their Games. New York Times B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dewandre, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Dewandre, 2002; Ho and Heinke, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ho and Heinke, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Stemmler et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Research
AbbreviationEnviron. Res.
ISSN (print)0013-9351
General Environmental Science

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