How to format your references using the Pediatric Radiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pediatric Radiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Shaw JE (2014) Alejandro Zaffaroni (1923-2014). Nature 508:187
A journal article with 2 authors
Barton RA, Harvey PH (2000) Mosaic evolution of brain structure in mammals. Nature 405:1055–1058
A journal article with 3 authors
Christodoulides DN, Lederer F, Silberberg Y (2003) Discretizing light behaviour in linear and nonlinear waveguide lattices. Nature 424:817–823
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Dror I, Amitay T, Yaron B, Berkowitz B (2003) Salt-pump mechanism for contaminant intrusion into coastal aquifers. Science 300:950

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McAulay AD (2011) Military Laser Technology for Defense. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Battiti R (2009) Reactive Search and Intelligent Optimization. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
John A (2016) Dynamic Models of Language Evolution: The Economic Perspective. In: Ginsburgh V, Weber S (eds) The Palgrave Handbook of Economics and Language. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, pp 101–120

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pediatric Radiology.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) Divers Explore The World’s Deepest Underwater Cave. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997) Weather Service Modernization: Risks Remain That Full Systems Potential Will Not be Achieved. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Turpie KR (2012) Enhancement of a canopy reflectance model for understanding the specular and spectral effects of an aquatic background in an inundated tidal marsh. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gordon MR (2017) Pentagon Inquiry Blames ISIS for Civilian Deaths in U.S. Strike on Mosul. New York Times A8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePediatric Radiology
AbbreviationPediatr. Radiol.
ISSN (print)0301-0449
ISSN (online)1432-1998
ScopePediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles