How to format your references using the Pediatric Radiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pediatric Radiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Guessoum N (2013) Astrophysics: Time for an Arab astronomy renaissance. Nature 498:161–164
A journal article with 2 authors
Vaughan DG, Arthern R (2007) Climate change. Why is it hard to predict the future of ice sheets? Science 315:1503–1504
A journal article with 3 authors
Cross CP, Cyrenne D-LM, Brown GR (2013) Sex differences in sensation-seeking: a meta-analysis. Sci Rep 3:2486
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Lee Y-P, Wu Y-J, Lees RM, et al (2006) Internal rotation and spin conversion of CH3OH in solid para-hydrogen. Science 311:365–368

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lutzke D (2012) Surfen in die digitale Zukunft. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Roy U (2016) Impact of Climate Change on Small Scale Hydro-turbine Selections. Springer, Singapore
A chapter in an edited book
Charles KE, Egan V (2008) Sensational and Extreme Interests in Adolescents. In: Kocsis RN (ed) Serial Murder and the Psychology of Violent Crimes. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp 63–83

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pediatric Radiology.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) Captain Cook’s Maps Are Helping Us Understand Arctic Sea Ice Melt. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1985) The Job Training Partnership Act: An Analysis of Support Cost Limits and Participant Characteristics. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Giuseffi FG (2014) Investigation of the Influence of the Socratic Method on Leadership Skills among JROTC Cadet Leaders at a Military Boarding School. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED MJ, Kang C (2017) TV Station Owners Rush to Seize on Looser Rules. New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePediatric Radiology
AbbreviationPediatr. Radiol.
ISSN (print)0301-0449
ISSN (online)1432-1998
ScopePediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles