How to format your references using the Pediatric Radiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pediatric Radiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Balibar S (2010) The enigma of supersolidity. Nature 464:176–182
A journal article with 2 authors
Hernanz M, Sala G (2002) A classical nova, V2487 Oph 1998, seen in x-rays before and after its explosion. Science 298:393–395
A journal article with 3 authors
Bayley PJ, Frascino JC, Squire LR (2005) Robust habit learning in the absence of awareness and independent of the medial temporal lobe. Nature 436:550–553
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Coudreuse DYM, Roël G, Betist MC, et al (2006) Wnt gradient formation requires retromer function in Wnt-producing cells. Science 312:921–924

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sierra MA, de la Torre MC, Cossío FP (2013) More Dead Ends and Detours. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Yao L (2006) Low-Power Low-Voltage Sigma-Delta Modulators in Nanometer CMOS. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Shaw LJ (2013) Healthcare Costs of Angina in Women. In: Kaski JC, Eslick GD, Bairey Merz CN (eds) Chest Pain with Normal Coronary Arteries: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Springer, London, pp 49–51

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pediatric Radiology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Sustainability Science Is A New Academic Discipline. But Is It Sustainable? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1986) Data Processing: SBA Needs To Strengthen Management of Its Computer Systems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kern MW (2012) Regional phylogenetic analysis of the myology of primates and correlates in the human skeleton. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW (2016) A Harbinger of U.S. Woes. New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePediatric Radiology
AbbreviationPediatr. Radiol.
ISSN (print)0301-0449
ISSN (online)1432-1998
ScopePediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles