How to format your references using the Data Science and Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Data Science and Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Benkler Y (2004) Intellectual property. Commons-based strategies and the problems of patents. Science 305:1110–1111
A journal article with 2 authors
Gelbart WM, Knobler CM (2009) Virology. Pressurized viruses. Science 323:1682–1683
A journal article with 3 authors
Seufert V, Ramankutty N, Foley JA (2012) Comparing the yields of organic and conventional agriculture. Nature 485:229–232
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Johansson LC, Engel S, Kelber A, et al (2013) Multiple leading edge vortices of unexpected strength in freely flying hawkmoth. Sci Rep 3:3264

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hansen S, Pedersen-Bjergaard S, Rasmussen K (2011) Introduction to Pharmaceutical Chemical Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Myatt A (2008) Pro NetBeansTM IDE 6 Rich Client Platform Edition. Apress, Berkeley, CA
A chapter in an edited book
Skubov D, Khodzhaev KS (2008) Periodic solutions in problems of excitation of mechanical oscillations. In: Khodzhaev KS (ed) Non-Linear Electromechanics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 175–204

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Data Science and Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Seeds Of Doubt: Why Consumers Weigh Up GM Produce – And Turn It Down. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1963) Comments on NASA Budget Expenditures. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mustico JP (2010) Perception and preference comparison of managers’ behaviors on sales and non -sales employees: A case study. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Steel E, Grynbaum MM (2017) Top Fox News Lawyer, Key Figure in Sexual Harassment Cases, Goes on Leave. New York Times B3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleData Science and Engineering
AbbreviationData Sci. Eng.
ISSN (print)2364-1185
ISSN (online)2364-1541

Other styles