How to format your references using the Environmental Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lee, C.-T.A. (2004) Geophysics. Are Earth’s core and mantle on speaking terms? Science 306: 64–65.
A journal article with 2 authors
Roorda, S. and Lewis, L.J. (2012) Comment on “The local structure of amorphous silicon.” Science 338: 1539; author reply 1539.
A journal article with 3 authors
Van der Burg, E., Cass, J., and Alais, D. (2014) Window of audio-visual simultaneity is unaffected by spatio-temporal visual clutter. Sci Rep 4: 5098.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Nash, M.S., Young, K.W., Challiss, R.A., and Nahorski, S.R. (2001) Intracellular signalling. Receptor-specific messenger oscillations. Nature 413: 381–382.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Campbell, C.A. (2008) The One-Page Project Manager for it Projects, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Nimmerjahn, F. ed. (2013) Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Antibody Activity, New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Richmond, S., Al Ali, A.M., Beldie, L., Chong, Y.T., Cronin, A., Djordjevic, J., et al. (2012) Detailing Patient Specific Modeling to Aid Clinical Decision-Making. In Patient-Specific Computational Modeling. Lecture Notes in Computational Vision and Biomechanics. Calvo Lopez, B. and Peña, E. (eds). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, pp. 105–131.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Microbiology.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015) Self-Driving Car Travels 3,400 Miles Across America. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) EOS Data Policy: Questions Remain About U.S. Commercial Access, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Parker, H.A. (2017) Virtual Mate Poaching: A study of the tactics used to poach a potential mate on Social Networking Sites.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W. (2013) Pension Funds Wary as Bankrupt City Goes to Trial. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lee, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Lee, 2004; Roorda and Lewis, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Roorda and Lewis, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Nash et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Microbiology
AbbreviationEnviron. Microbiol.
ISSN (print)1462-2912
ISSN (online)1462-2920
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles