How to format your references using the Environmental Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gewin, V. (2004) Taking a risk in start-ups. Nature 429: 484–485.
A journal article with 2 authors
Helbing, D. and Pournaras, E. (2015) Society: Build digital democracy. Nature 527: 33–34.
A journal article with 3 authors
Eberhardt, M.V., Lee, C.Y., and Liu, R.H. (2000) Antioxidant activity of fresh apples. Nature 405: 903–904.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Murray, C.D., Chavez, C., Beurle, K., Cooper, N., Evans, M.W., Burns, J.A., and Porco, C.C. (2005) How Prometheus creates structure in Saturn’s F ring. Nature 437: 1326–1329.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Leddra, M. (2010) Time Matters, Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Groth, P., Simperl, E., Gray, A., Sabou, M., Krötzsch, M., Lecue, F., et al. eds. (2016) The Semantic Web – ISWC 2016: 15th International Semantic Web Conference, Kobe, Japan, October 17–21, 2016, Proceedings, Part II, Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Strauser, E., Naveau, M., Ménager, H., Maupetit, J., Lacroix, Z., and Tufféry, P. (2012) Semantic Map for Structural Bioinformatics: Enhanced Service Discovery Based on High Level Concept Ontology. In Resource Discovery: Third International Workshop, RED 2010, Paris, France, November 5, 2010, Revised Selected Papers. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Lacroix, Z. and Vidal, M.E. (eds). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 57–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Microbiology.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016) The World’s Oldest Panda In Captivity Has Died. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2001) Aviation Safety: FAA and DOD Response to Similar Safety Concerns, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hilker, B. (2010) Electric-field effects and interactions of dye-polymer systems.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2011) Success and Scandal Can Leave Everyone Weary. New York Times SP7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gewin, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Gewin, 2004; Helbing and Pournaras, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Helbing and Pournaras, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Murray et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Microbiology
AbbreviationEnviron. Microbiol.
ISSN (print)1462-2912
ISSN (online)1462-2920
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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