How to format your references using the Environmental Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Villeval, M.C. (2014) Behavioural economics: Professional identity can increase dishonesty. Nature 516: 48–49.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hannon, G.J. and Rossi, J.J. (2004) Unlocking the potential of the human genome with RNA interference. Nature 431: 371–378.
A journal article with 3 authors
Aubert, J., Finlay, C.C., and Fournier, A. (2013) Bottom-up control of geomagnetic secular variation by the Earth’s inner core. Nature 502: 219–223.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Chu, P., Chen, D.P., Wang, Y.L., Xie, Y.L., Yan, Z.B., Wan, J.G., et al. (2014) Kinetics of 90° domain wall motions and high frequency mesoscopic dielectric response in strained ferroelectrics: a phase-field simulation. Sci Rep 4: 5007.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Britton, M. (2015) YouthNation, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Christenson, S.L., Reschly, A.L., and Wylie, C. eds. (2012) Handbook of Research on Student Engagement, Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Farkas, J. and Jármai, K. (2013) Beams and Columns. In Optimum Design of Steel Structures. Jármai, K. (ed). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 43–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Microbiology.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2016) If You Can Breathe, Thank Moss. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1980) Routine Disclosure of Broadcaster Financial Records, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hammamy, R. (2010) “Promoting responsible action in medical emergencies”: Determining the impact of a new University of Maryland alcohol protocol.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Masood, S. and Hubbard, B. (2017) Pakistan Approves Military Hero to Head a Tricky Saudi-Led Alliance. New York Times A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Villeval, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Hannon and Rossi, 2004; Villeval, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hannon and Rossi, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Chu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Microbiology
AbbreviationEnviron. Microbiol.
ISSN (print)1462-2912
ISSN (online)1462-2920
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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