How to format your references using the Environmental Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zewail, A.H. (2001) The fog that was not. Nature 412: 279.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lasaga, A.C. and Luttge, A. (2001) Variation of crystal dissolution rate based on a dissolution stepwave model. Science 291: 2400–2404.
A journal article with 3 authors
Alexander, J.M., Diez, J.M., and Levine, J.M. (2015) Novel competitors shape species’ responses to climate change. Nature 525: 515–518.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Unnithan, V.V., Unc, A., Joe, V., and Smith, G.B. (2014) Short RNA indicator sequences are not completely degraded by autoclaving. Sci. Rep. 4: 4070.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cunningham, V. (2011) Victorian Poetry Now John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Zhang, Y. (2006) Web Communities: Analysis and Construction Yu,J.X. and Hou,J. (eds) Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Gronau, H.-D., Langmann, H.-H., and Schleicher, D. (2011) Participants. In, Gronau,H.-D., Langmann,H.-H., and Schleicher,D. (eds), 50th IMO - 50 Years of International Mathematical Olympiads. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 47–100.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Microbiology.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2016) Tiny Vibrating Hairs Help Bees Sense Electrical Signals Sent From Flowers. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1985) SSA’s Acceptance Testing of a Mass Storage System for Computerized Data Was Adequate U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vu, M.K. (2015) Reducing mental health provider burnout through wellness: A grant proposal.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (2004) Critics See Kremlin’s Hand in Charges Against Ex-K.G.B. Agent. New York Times 127.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zewail, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Lasaga and Luttge, 2001; Zewail, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lasaga and Luttge, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Unnithan et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Microbiology
AbbreviationEnviron. Microbiol.
ISSN (print)1462-2912
ISSN (online)1462-2920
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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