How to format your references using the Environmental Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Landry, C.R. (2011) Cell biology. A cellular roadmap for the plant kingdom. Science 333: 532–533.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ikehara, T. and Kataoka, T. (2013) Relation between the helical twist and S-shaped cross section of the lamellar crystals of polyethylene. Sci Rep 3: 1444.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lu, D., Searles, M.A., and Klug, A. (2003) Crystal structure of a zinc-finger-RNA complex reveals two modes of molecular recognition. Nature 426: 96–100.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Galy, V., Beyssac, O., France-Lanord, C., and Eglinton, T. (2008) Recycling of graphite during Himalayan erosion: a geological stabilization of carbon in the crust. Science 322: 943–945.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kwok, S. (2011) Organic Matter in the Universe, Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Wartofsky, L. and Van Nostrand, D. eds. (2016) Thyroid Cancer: A Comprehensive Guide to Clinical Management, 3rd ed. 2016. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Le, T.-H., Elghazel, H., and Hacid, M.-S. (2012) A Relational-Based Approach for Aggregated Search in Graph Databases. In Database Systems for Advanced Applications: 17th International Conference, DASFAA 2012, Busan, South Korea, April 15-19, 2012, Proceedings, Part I. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Lee, S.-G., Peng, Z., Zhou, X., Moon, Y.-S., Unland, R., and Yoo, J. (eds). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 33–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Microbiology.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016) You Can Now Charge Your Smartphone With Your Pee. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2014) The Air Force’s Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle Competitive Procurement, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McCoy, N. (2015) Functionality Evaluation of the Wave Suppressor and Sediment Collection (WSSC) System: Wave Reduction, Sediment Collection, Mathematical Model, and Preliminary Field Evaluation.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W. (2011) Cuts for the Already Retired. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Landry, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Landry, 2011; Ikehara and Kataoka, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ikehara and Kataoka, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Galy et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Microbiology
AbbreviationEnviron. Microbiol.
ISSN (print)1462-2912
ISSN (online)1462-2920
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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