How to format your references using the Environmental Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Manuelidis, L., 2000. Penny wise, pound foolish-a retrospective. Science 290, 2257b.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stuiver, M.H., Custers, J.H., 2001. Engineering disease resistance in plants. Nature 411, 865–868.
A journal article with 3 authors
French, S., Lekic, V., Romanowicz, B., 2013. Waveform tomography reveals channeled flow at the base of the oceanic asthenosphere. Science 342, 227–230.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hasper, H.E., Kramer, N.E., Smith, J.L., Hillman, J.D., Zachariah, C., Kuipers, O.P., de Kruijff, B., Breukink, E., 2006. An alternative bactericidal mechanism of action for lantibiotic peptides that target lipid II. Science 313, 1636–1637.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wright, D., 2016. Using Commercial Contracts. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Madanhire, I., 2016. Mitigating Environmental Impact of Petroleum Lubricants. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Saddler, J.N., Mabee, W.E., Simms, R., Taylor, M., 2012. The Biorefining Story: Progress in the Commercialization of Biomass-to-Ethanol, in: Schlichter, T., Montes, L. (Eds.), Forests in Development: A Vital Balance. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 39–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Development.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2017. A Beautiful Glimpse Of A Galaxy Seen From The Edge [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2006. Financial Restatement Database (No. GAO-06-1053R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Onal, B., 2015. RFID feasibility study for check-out stations at supermarkets (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barry, E., Kishkovsky, S., 2014. As Putin’s Popularity Soars, Voices of Opposition Are Being Drowned Out. New York Times A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Manuelidis, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Manuelidis, 2000; Stuiver and Custers, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stuiver and Custers, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Hasper et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Development
ISSN (print)2211-4645
ScopeManagement, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Geography, Planning and Development

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