How to format your references using the Environmental Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Willyard, C., 2013. Stem cells: bad seeds. Nature 498, S12-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Darst, C.R., Cummings, M.E., 2006. Predator learning favours mimicry of a less-toxic model in poison frogs. Nature 440, 208–211.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yuasa, S., Nagahama, T., Suzuki, Y., 2002. Spin-polarized resonant tunneling in magnetic tunnel junctions. Science 297, 234–237.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Biscaye, P.E., Grousset, F.E., Svensson, A.M., Bory, A., Barrie, L.A., 2000. Eurasian air pollution reaches eastern north america. Science 290, 2258–2259.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smith, J.D.H., Romanowska, A.B., 1999. Post-Modern Algebra. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Scholl, H.P.N., Massof, R.W., West, S. (Eds.), 2013. Ophthalmology and the Ageing Society, Essentials in Ophthalmology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Mycroft, A., 2012. Isolation Types and Multi-core Architectures, in: Beckert, B., Damiani, F., Gurov, D. (Eds.), Formal Verification of Object-Oriented Software: International Conference, FoVeOOS 2011, Turin, Italy, October 5-7, 2011, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 33–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Development.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2016. Thai Police Charge 22 People From The Tiger Temple With Wildlife Trafficking [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1971. Activities at the Regional Finance and Data Processing Center in Paris, France (No. B-146703). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hitchings, J.D., 2008. Teachers’ perceptions of evidence-based decision making: A case study of three schools in British Columbia (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Herskovic, L., 2013. Blunt Doctor Cures Headaches. New York Times A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Willyard, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Darst and Cummings, 2006; Willyard, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Darst and Cummings, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Biscaye et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Development
ISSN (print)2211-4645
ScopeManagement, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Geography, Planning and Development

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