How to format your references using the Environmental Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dalton, R., 2000. US Geological Survey needs more resources, says draft report. Nature 407, 933.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nicholson, J.M., Ioannidis, J.P.A., 2012. Research grants: Conform and be funded. Nature 492, 34–36.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gil, S., Kott, A., Barabási, A.-L., 2014. A genetic epidemiology approach to cyber-security. Sci. Rep. 4, 5659.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hale, M.L., Lurz, P.W., Shirley, M.D., Rushton, S., Fuller, R.M., Wolff, K., 2001. Impact of landscape management on the genetic structure of red squirrel populations. Science 293, 2246–2248.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Walkenbach, J., 2010. John Walkenbach’s Favorite Excel® 2010 Tips & Tricks. Wiley Publishing, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Arczewski, K., Blajer, W., Fraczek, J., Wojtyra, M. (Eds.), 2011. Multibody Dynamics: Computational Methods and Applications, Computational Methods in Applied Sciences. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Guo, Z., Lamb, S., 2010. Framework for Comparing China’s TVET System, in: Lamb, S. (Ed.), International Comparisons of China’s Technical and Vocational Education and Training System, Technical and Vocational Education and Training: Issues, Concerns and Prospects. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 75–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Development.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Could Early Infant Screening And Intervention Help Prevent Autism? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1996. Programs for Land-Grant Schools (No. HEHS-96-91R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Noll, R.T., 2009. Physician acceptance of Computerized Physician Order Entry in outpatient settings: A quantitative analysis of family medicine within Maricopa County, Arizona (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz, J., 2017. Pardon My Sweat, Pass the Borscht. New York Times D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dalton, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Dalton, 2000; Nicholson and Ioannidis, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nicholson and Ioannidis, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Hale et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Development
ISSN (print)2211-4645
ScopeManagement, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Geography, Planning and Development

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