How to format your references using the Environmental Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kitayama, K., 2005. Comment on “Ecosystem properties and forest decline in contrasting long-term chronosequences.” Science 308, 633; author reply 633.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tapscott, S.J., Thornton, C.A., 2001. Biomedicine. Reconstructing myotonic dystrophy. Science 293, 816–817.
A journal article with 3 authors
Unal, E., Heidinger-Pauli, J.M., Koshland, D., 2007. DNA double-strand breaks trigger genome-wide sister-chromatid cohesion through Eco1 (Ctf7). Science 317, 245–248.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lee, N., Maurange, C., Ringrose, L., Paro, R., 2005. Suppression of Polycomb group proteins by JNK signalling induces transdetermination in Drosophila imaginal discs. Nature 438, 234–237.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pines, J.M., Carpenter, C.R., Raja, A.S., Schuur, J.D., 2012. Evidence-Based Emergency Care. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Corrigan, M.L., Escuro, A.A., Kirby, D.F. (Eds.), 2013. Handbook of Clinical Nutrition and Stroke, Nutrition and Health. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ.
A chapter in an edited book
Bhowmik, M.K., Kennedy, K.J., 2016. ‘Out of School’ Ethnic Minority Young People: Multiple Data Sources, Their Meaning, and Extent of the ‘Out of School’ Phenomenon, in: Kennedy, K.J. (Ed.), ‘Out of School’ Ethnic Minority Young People in Hong Kong, Education in the Asia-Pacific Region: Issues, Concerns and Prospects. Springer, Singapore, pp. 79–114.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Development.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2015. Rare, Hairy Nautilus Spotted For The First Time in 30 Years [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1979. Alternatives for the Bureau of Indian Affairs Public School Financial Assistance Program (No. CED-79-112). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Viramontes, M., 2009. Parenting styles and practices and their impact on school behavior (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, S., 1993. Be of Good Fear. New York Times 745.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kitayama, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Kitayama, 2005; Tapscott and Thornton, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tapscott and Thornton, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Lee et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Development
ISSN (print)2211-4645
ScopeManagement, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Geography, Planning and Development

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