How to format your references using the Environmental Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Masocha, W., 2014. Paclitaxel-induced hyposensitivity to nociceptive chemical stimulation in mice can be prevented by treatment with minocycline. Sci. Rep. 4, 6719.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rosegrant, M.W., Cline, S.A., 2003. Global food security: challenges and policies. Science 302, 1917–1919.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tzfira, T., Vaidya, M., Citovsky, V., 2004. Involvement of targeted proteolysis in plant genetic transformation by Agrobacterium. Nature 431, 87–92.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Krams, I.A., Skrinda, I., Kecko, S., Moore, F.R., Krama, T., Kaasik, A., Meija, L., Lietuvietis, V., Rantala, M.J., 2014. Body height affects the strength of immune response in young men, but not young women. Sci. Rep. 4, 6223.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Woolf, V., 2012. The Years. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Zhou, J., Salvendy, G. (Eds.), 2016. Human Aspects of IT for the Aged Population. Healthy and Active Aging: Second International Conference, ITAP 2016, Held as Part of HCI International 2016 Toronto, ON, Canada, July 17–22, 2016, Proceedings, Part II, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Glouche, Y., Gautier, T., Guernic, P.L., Talpin, J.-P., 2010. A Module Language for Typing SIGNAL Programs by Contracts, in: Shukla, S.K., Talpin, J.-P. (Eds.), Synthesis of Embedded Software: Frameworks and Methodologies for Correctness by Construction. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp. 147–171.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Development.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. How To See Shooting Stars Tonight [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2009. Surface Transportation: Clear Federal Role and Criteria-Based Selection Process Could Improve Three National and Regional Infrastructure Programs (No. GAO-09-219). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dillon, K.S., 2009. Social support to families of children with special needs: A grant (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M., 2013. Fighter Who Faked Death Is Sent to Prison for Robbery. New York Times B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Masocha, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Masocha, 2014; Rosegrant and Cline, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rosegrant and Cline, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Krams et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Development
ISSN (print)2211-4645
ScopeManagement, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Geography, Planning and Development

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