How to format your references using the Environmental and Ecological Statistics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental and Ecological Statistics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith R (2012) Why a macroeconomic perspective is critical to the prevention of noncommunicable disease. Science 337:1501–1503
A journal article with 2 authors
Patrinos AAN, Bradley RA (2009) Environment. Energy and technology policies for managing carbon risk. Science 325:949–950
A journal article with 3 authors
Liu Y, Wang J, Zhang X (2013) Accurate determination of the vapor-liquid-solid contact line tension and the viability of Young equation. Sci Rep 3:2008
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Wu Z, Xie X, Li P, et al (2013) Equilibrious strand exchange promoted by DNA conformational switching. Sci Rep 3:1121

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Carne EB (2011) Connections for the Digital Age. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Orlowska E (2011) Dual Tableaux: Foundations, Methodology, Case Studies. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Muller-Parker G, D’Elia CF, Cook CB (2015) Interactions Between Corals and Their Symbiotic Algae. In: Birkeland C (ed) Coral Reefs in the Anthropocene. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 99–116

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental and Ecological Statistics.

Blog post
Andrews R (2015) Mathematical Bedtime Stories Significantly Improve School Performance. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2000) Aviation Security: Vulnerabilities Still Exist in the Aviation Security System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Valenzuela J (2014) Medicare advantage’s population make-up and its impact on the future of Medicare financing. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lévy B-H, Soros G (2015) Save the New Ukraine. New York Times A21

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smith 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Patrinos and Bradley 2009; Smith 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Patrinos and Bradley 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Wu et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental and Ecological Statistics
AbbreviationEnviron. Ecol. Stat.
ISSN (print)1352-8505
ISSN (online)1573-3009
ScopeStatistics, Probability and Uncertainty
General Environmental Science
Statistics and Probability

Other styles