How to format your references using the Environmental and Ecological Statistics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental and Ecological Statistics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Greenspan NS (2001) You can’t have it all. Nature 409:137
A journal article with 2 authors
Heyward AJ, Negri AP (2012) Turbulence, cleavage, and the naked embryo: a case for coral clones. Science 335:1064
A journal article with 3 authors
Alexandre C, Baena-Lopez A, Vincent J-P (2014) Patterning and growth control by membrane-tethered Wingless. Nature 505:180–185
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Essers MAG, de Vries-Smits LMM, Barker N, et al (2005) Functional interaction between beta-catenin and FOXO in oxidative stress signaling. Science 308:1181–1184

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smith RA (2010) Virgil. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Zhang Y, Zhou Z-H, Zhang C, Li Y (eds) (2012) Intelligent Science and Intelligent Data Engineering: Second Sino-foreign-interchange Workshop, IScIDE 2011, Xi’an, China, October 23-25, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
McTear M (2008) Handling Miscommunication: Why Bother? In: Dybkjær L, Minker W (eds) Recent Trends in Discourse and Dialogue. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 101–122

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental and Ecological Statistics.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2016) Two Nearby Earth-Sized Exoplanets Confirmed To Be Rocky. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2004) Diploma Mills: Diploma Mills Are Easily Created and Some Have Issued Bogus Degrees to Federal Employees at Government Expense. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Beechey SN (2008) The politics of deservingness: Discourses of gender, race, *class, and age in the 2005 Social Security debates. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L (2006) With O’Connor Retirement and a New Chief Justice Comes an Awareness of Change. New York Times A10

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Greenspan 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Greenspan 2001; Heyward and Negri 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Heyward and Negri 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Essers et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental and Ecological Statistics
AbbreviationEnviron. Ecol. Stat.
ISSN (print)1352-8505
ISSN (online)1573-3009
ScopeStatistics, Probability and Uncertainty
General Environmental Science
Statistics and Probability

Other styles