How to format your references using the Environment, Development and Sustainability citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environment, Development and Sustainability. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Conrad, J. (2015). Reproducibility: Don’t cry wolf. Nature, 523(7558), 27–28.
A journal article with 2 authors
Grosche, A., & Reichenbach, A. (2013). Neuroscience. Developmental refining of neuroglial signaling? Science (New York, N.Y.), 339(6116), 152–153.
A journal article with 3 authors
Martincorena, I., Seshasayee, A. S. N., & Luscombe, N. M. (2012). Evidence of non-random mutation rates suggests an evolutionary risk management strategy. Nature, 485(7396), 95–98.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Stymiest, J. L., Bagutski, V., French, R. M., & Aggarwal, V. K. (2008). Enantiodivergent conversion of chiral secondary alcohols into tertiary alcohols. Nature, 456(7223), 778–782.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
DiMarzio, J. F. (2016). Beginning Android® Programming with Android Studio. Indianapolis, Indiana: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ba, S. (2016). “Internet Plus” Pathways to the Transformation of China’s Property Sector. (X. Yang, Ed.). Singapore: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Sugawara, Y., Li, Y. J., Naitoh, Y., & Kageshima, M. (2010). Development of High-Speed Actuator for Scanning Probe Microscopy. In T. Higuchi, K. Suzumori, & S. Tadokoro (Eds.), Next-Generation Actuators Leading Breakthroughs (pp. 45–54). London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environment, Development and Sustainability.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, June 19). The Massive Waste Happening In Mosquito-Borne Disease Research. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2008). Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Fiscal Year 2008 Airport and Airway Trust Fund Excise Taxes (No. GAO-09-90R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hudson, N. (2017). Undocumented Latino Student Activists’ Funds of Knowledge: Transforming Social Movements (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brownmiller, S. (2017, September 29). Hugh Hefner Was My Enemy. New York Times, p. SR3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Conrad 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Conrad 2015; Grosche and Reichenbach 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Grosche and Reichenbach 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Stymiest et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironment, Development and Sustainability
AbbreviationEnviron. Dev. Sustain.
ISSN (print)1387-585X
ISSN (online)1573-2975
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Geography, Planning and Development

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