How to format your references using the Environment, Development and Sustainability citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environment, Development and Sustainability. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Weir, K. (2015). Microbiology: Inflammatory evidence. Nature, 528(7582), S130-1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Herlihy, C. R., & Eckert, C. G. (2002). Genetic cost of reproductive assurance in a self-fertilizing plant. Nature, 416(6878), 320–323.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rocha, P. P., Chaumeil, J., & Skok, J. A. (2013). Molecular biology. Finding the right partner in a 3D genome. Science (New York, N.Y.), 342(6164), 1333–1334.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Engelbrecht, B. M. J., Comita, L. S., Condit, R., Kursar, T. A., Tyree, M. T., Turner, B. L., & Hubbell, S. P. (2007). Drought sensitivity shapes species distribution patterns in tropical forests. Nature, 447(7140), 80–82.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saleh, S. A., & Rahman, M. A. (2010). An Introduction to Wavelet Modulated Inverters. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Irvin-Erickson, D., & Phan, P. C. (Eds.). (2016). Violence, Religion, Peacemaking. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US.
A chapter in an edited book
Okecha, A. A., & Newton-Fisher, N. E. (2006). The Diet of Olive Baboons (Papio anubis) in the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. In N. E. Newton-Fisher, H. Notman, J. D. Paterson, & V. Reynolds (Eds.), Primates of Western Uganda (pp. 61–73). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environment, Development and Sustainability.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, February 20). Flower Pharmacies Help Bees Fight Parasites. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1996). FCC: Access to Telecommunications Equipment and Services by Persons With Disabilities (No. OGC-96-36). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thornsberry, J. L. (2010). Freshman transition and its effectiveness on student success as measured by improved attendance, improved grades, decreased discipline referrals, and decreased dropout rate (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly, E. (1998, February 15). Mascots R Them. New York Times, p. 144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Weir 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Herlihy and Eckert 2002; Weir 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Herlihy and Eckert 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Engelbrecht et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironment, Development and Sustainability
AbbreviationEnviron. Dev. Sustain.
ISSN (print)1387-585X
ISSN (online)1573-2975
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Geography, Planning and Development

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