How to format your references using the Environment, Development and Sustainability citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environment, Development and Sustainability. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mackenzie, D. (2000). MATHEMATICS: Taking the Measure of the Wildest Dance on Earth. Science (New York, N.Y.), 290(5498), 1883–1884.
A journal article with 2 authors
Raiborg, C., & Stenmark, H. (2009). The ESCRT machinery in endosomal sorting of ubiquitylated membrane proteins. Nature, 458(7237), 445–452.
A journal article with 3 authors
Squartini, T., van Lelyveld, I., & Garlaschelli, D. (2013). Early-warning signals of topological collapse in interbank networks. Scientific reports, 3, 3357.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Varaldi, J., Fouillet, P., Ravallec, M., López-Ferber, M., Boulétreau, M., & Fleury, F. (2003). Infectious behavior in a parasitoid. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5652), 1930.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Patterson, S. J., & Radtke, J. M. (2009). Strategic Communications for Nonprofit Organizations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Duque, G., & Watanabe, K. (Eds.). (2011). Osteoporosis Research: Animal Models. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bunin, G. R., & Bosco, J. L. F. (2010). Diet and Childhood Cancer: Preliminary Evidence. In A. Bendich & R. J. Deckelbaum (Eds.), Preventive Nutrition: The Comprehensive Guide for Health Professionals (pp. 127–143). Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environment, Development and Sustainability.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, October 20). We Could Finally Be Close To Wiping Out HIV From The Body. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1979). Severe Storms Research Activities (No. 110577). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Haradon, C. M. (2010). The ecological context of the Acheulean to Middle Stone Age transition in Africa (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Fernandez, M., & Fausset, R. (2017, August 31). A Limitless City, Now Envisioning New Limitations. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mackenzie 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Mackenzie 2000; Raiborg and Stenmark 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Raiborg and Stenmark 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Varaldi et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironment, Development and Sustainability
AbbreviationEnviron. Dev. Sustain.
ISSN (print)1387-585X
ISSN (online)1573-2975
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Geography, Planning and Development

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