How to format your references using the Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice (ETP). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zurek, W. H. (2001). Sub-Planck structure in phase space and its relevance for quantum decoherence. Nature, 412(6848), 712–717.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rakoff-Nahoum, S., & Comstock, L. E. (2014). Immunology: Starve a fever, feed the microbiota. Nature, 514(7524), 576–577.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lake, B. M., Salakhutdinov, R., & Tenenbaum, J. B. (2015). Human-level concept learning through probabilistic program induction. Science (New York, N.Y.), 350(6266), 1332–1338.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Fujisawa, T., Austing, D. G., Tokura, Y., Hirayama, Y., & Tarucha, S. (2002). Allowed and forbidden transitions in artificial hydrogen and helium atoms. Nature, 419(6904), 278–281.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kapterev, A. (2011). Presentation Secrets. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Condon, A., Harel, D., Kok, J. N., Salomaa, A., & Winfree, E. (Eds.). (2009). Algorithmic Bioprocesses. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Zadeh, A. H., & Sharda, R. (2015). Hawkes Point Processes for Social Media Analytics. In L. S. Iyer & D. J. Power (Eds.), Reshaping Society through Analytics, Collaboration, and Decision Support: Role of Business Intelligence and Social Media (pp. 51–66). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 21). Talking To Mars: New Antenna Design Could Aid Interplanetary Communication. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1985). Software Tools and Techniques (128750). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Oppenheimer, C. (2010). Use of bibliotherapy as an adjunctive therapy with bereaved children: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S. K. (2005, January 26). World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Outcry At Claims Against Jews. New York Times, A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zurek, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Rakoff-Nahoum & Comstock, 2014; Zurek, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rakoff-Nahoum & Comstock, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Lake et al., 2015)
  • 6 or more authors: (Fujisawa et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleEntrepreneurship Theory and Practice
AbbreviationEntrep.. Theory Pr.
ISSN (print)1042-2587
ISSN (online)1540-6520
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Economics and Econometrics

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