How to format your references using the Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice (ETP). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fabian, A. C. (2006). Astronomy. Variable high-energy gamma rays from the elliptical galaxy M87. Science (New York, N.Y.), 314(5804), 1398–1399.
A journal article with 2 authors
Anfinrud, P., & Schotte, F. (2005). Chemistry. X-ray fingerprinting of chemical intermediates in solution. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5738), 1192–1193.
A journal article with 3 authors
Moles, A., Kieffer, B. L., & D’Amato, F. R. (2004). Deficit in attachment behavior in mice lacking the mu-opioid receptor gene. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5679), 1983–1986.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Fukata, Y., Adesnik, H., Iwanaga, T., Bredt, D. S., Nicoll, R. A., & Fukata, M. (2006). Epilepsy-related ligand/receptor complex LGI1 and ADAM22 regulate synaptic transmission. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5794), 1792–1795.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Featherstone, H., & Holt, E. (2011). Small Animal Ophthalmology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Li, D., & Wang, B. (Eds.). (2005). Artificial Intelligence Applications and Innovations: IFIP TC12 WG12.5 - Second IFIP Conference on Artificial Intelligence Applications and Innovations (AIAI2005), September 7–9, 2005, Beijing, China (Vol. 187). Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Quan, W., Gong, X., Fang, J., & Li, J. (2015). Star Map Processing Algorithm of Star Sensor and Autonomous Celestial Navigation. In J. Li, X. Gong, & J. Fang (Eds.), INS/CNS/GNSS Integrated Navigation Technology (pp. 145–183). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016, August 8). Can Wormholes Fix A Major Problem With Black Holes? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2001). Information Security: Weak Controls Place DC Highway Trust Fund and Other Data at Risk (GAO-01-155). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Backfish, M. (2013). Electron Cloud in Steel Beam Pipe vs Titanium Nitride Coated and Amorphous Carbon Coated Beam Pipes in Fermilab’s Main Injector [Doctoral dissertation]. Indiana University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland, J. (2017, March 16). The City Awakens. New York Times, MB7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fabian, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Anfinrud & Schotte, 2005; Fabian, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Anfinrud & Schotte, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Moles et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Fukata et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleEntrepreneurship Theory and Practice
AbbreviationEntrep.. Theory Pr.
ISSN (print)1042-2587
ISSN (online)1540-6520
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Economics and Econometrics

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