How to format your references using the Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice (ETP). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Greally, J. (2008). Journal club. A biologist considers a link between jumping genes and immune-system enzymes. Nature, 456(7222), 549.
A journal article with 2 authors
McCormick, C., & Ganem, D. (2005). The kaposin B protein of KSHV activates the p38/MK2 pathway and stabilizes cytokine mRNAs. Science (New York, N.Y.), 307(5710), 739–741.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, C., de Grijs, R., & Deng, L. (2014). The exclusion of a significant range of ages in a massive star cluster. Nature, 516(7531), 367–369.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Jaakola, V.-P., Griffith, M. T., Hanson, M. A., Cherezov, V., Chien, E. Y. T., Lane, J. R., Ijzerman, A. P., & Stevens, R. C. (2008). The 2.6 angstrom crystal structure of a human A2A adenosine receptor bound to an antagonist. Science (New York, N.Y.), 322(5905), 1211–1217.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cotarca, L., & Eckert, H. (2005). Phosgenations - A Handbook. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Erdemir, U., & Yildiz, E. (Eds.). (2016). Esthetic and Functional Management of Diastema: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Grancharova, A., & Johansen, T. A. (2012). Explicit MPC of Constrained Nonlinear Systems with Quantized Inputs. In T. A. Johansen (Ed.), Explicit Nonlinear Model Predictive Control: Theory and Applications (pp. 111–125). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, June 30). Babbler Bird Speak is Remarkably Human-Like. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1990). Transportation Infrastructure: Flexibility in Federal-Aid Funding Essential to Highway Program Restructuring (T-RCED-91-4). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Baxter, V. P. (2013). Communitarian Leadership Practice Acquisition in Educational Leadership Preparation [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. (2017, September 21). Hong Kong Trilogy: Preschooled Preoccupied Preposterous. New York Times, C10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Greally, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Greally, 2008; McCormick & Ganem, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (McCormick & Ganem, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Li et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Jaakola et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleEntrepreneurship Theory and Practice
AbbreviationEntrep.. Theory Pr.
ISSN (print)1042-2587
ISSN (online)1540-6520
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Economics and Econometrics

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