How to format your references using the Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
L. Du Pasquier, Immunology. Insects diversify one molecule to serve two systems, Science. 309 (2005) 1826–1827.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. Bucchi, F. Neresini, Biotechnology. Why are people hostile to biotechnologies?, Science. 304 (2004) 1749.
A journal article with 3 authors
W.E. Halter, T. Pettke, C.A. Heinrich, The origin of Cu/Au ratios in porphyry-type ore deposits, Science. 296 (2002) 1844–1846.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
G. Siegel, M.C. Prestgard, S. Teng, A. Tiwari, Robust longitudinal spin-Seebeck effect in Bi-YIG thin films, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4429.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M.J. Zwecher, Retirement Portfolios Workbook, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2010.
An edited book
V. Stone, B. Ojikutu, M.K. Rawlings, K.Y. Smith, eds., HIV/AIDS in U.S. Communities of Color, Springer, New York, NY, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
K. Borthen, B. Hemforth, B. Mertins, B. Behrens, C. Fabricius-Hansen, Referring Expressions in Speech Reports, in: B. Hemforth, B. Mertins, C. Fabricius-Hansen (Eds.), Psycholinguistic Approaches to Meaning and Understanding across Languages, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014: pp. 111–142.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, Scientists Have Begun Hunting For Alien Signals Coming From Mysterious Star, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Standards and Technology: Update of Information About Fee Increases for Measurement Services, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A.-R. Ismail, Assessing the relationship between the Internet, radio frequency identifier (RFID), and information technology (IT) flexibility: A correlational study and findings, Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Billard, Scrooge Has a Sense of Humor, New York Times. (2013) E13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEngineering Science and Technology, an International Journal
ISSN (print)2215-0986

Other styles