How to format your references using the Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M.C. Downer, Optics. A new low for nonlinear optics, Science. 298 (2002) 373–375.
A journal article with 2 authors
Y. Tan, Z.-Q. Luo, Legionella pneumophila SidD is a deAMPylase that modifies Rab1, Nature. 475 (2011) 506–509.
A journal article with 3 authors
D.A. Colón-Ramos, M.A. Margeta, K. Shen, Glia promote local synaptogenesis through UNC-6 (netrin) signaling in C. elegans, Science. 318 (2007) 103–106.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
I. Terry, G.H. Walter, C. Moore, R. Roemer, C. Hull, Odor-mediated push-pull pollination in cycads, Science. 318 (2007) 70.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. Mattone, N. Vaidya, Cultural Transformations, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2016.
An edited book
J.E. Adams, ed., PIP Joint Fracture Dislocations: A Clinical Casebook, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
B.X. Wang, N. Japkowicz, Boosting Support Vector Machines for Imbalanced Data Sets, in: A. An, S. Matwin, Z.W. Raś, D. Ślęzak (Eds.), Foundations of Intelligent Systems: 17th International Symposium, ISMIS 2008 Toronto, Canada, May 20-23, 2008 Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008: pp. 38–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal.

Blog post
S. Luntz, The Amazon River Flows Backwards, And Now Scientists Have Figured Out Why, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Status of Farmers Home Administration Efforts To Install Office Automation, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1985.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
T.M. Christian, Under the Navajo stars: The intersection of mythic narratives, archaeology, and star ceilings, Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Branch, Leader of U.S. Governing Body Resigns as Scandal Spreads, New York Times. (2017) B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEngineering Science and Technology, an International Journal
ISSN (print)2215-0986

Other styles