How to format your references using the Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
E. Check, Retraction signals end of cell-biology debate, Nature. 427 (2004) 574.
A journal article with 2 authors
L. Du, B.W. Poovaiah, Ca2+/calmodulin is critical for brassinosteroid biosynthesis and plant growth, Nature. 437 (2005) 741–745.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. Piovia-Scott, D.A. Spiller, T.W. Schoener, Effects of experimental seaweed deposition on lizard and ant predation in an island food web, Science. 331 (2011) 461–463.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Zhang, K. Xie, H. Wei, Q. Qin, W. Qi, L. Yang, C. Ruan, Y. Wu, In situ formation of oxygen vacancy in perovskite Sr(0.95)Ti(0.8)Nb(0.1)M(0.1)O3 (M = Mn, Cr) toward efficient carbon dioxide electrolysis, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 7082.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
B.C. Dimond, Legal Aspects of Radiography and Radiology, Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford, UK, 2008.
An edited book
M. Keshtgar, K. Pigott, F. Wenz, eds., Targeted Intraoperative Radiotherapy in Oncology, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
S.-I. Pyun, H.-C. Shin, J.-W. Lee, J.-Y. Go, Hydrogen Transport Under Impermeable Boundary Conditions, in: H.-C. Shin, J.-W. Lee, J.-Y. Go (Eds.), Electrochemistry of Insertion Materials for Hydrogen and Lithium, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012: pp. 83–104.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Tomorrow’s Technology Will Lead To Sweeping Changes In Society – It Must, For All Our Sakes, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle: DOD Needs to Ensure New Acquisition Strategy is Based on Sufficient Information, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D. Greenfield, Beyond Super Heroes and Talking Animals: Social Justice in Graphic Novels in Education, Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Yablonsky, Imps of the Perverse, New York Times. (2011) M250.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEngineering Science and Technology, an International Journal
ISSN (print)2215-0986

Other styles