How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Y. Dzenis, “Material science. Spinning continuous fibers for nanotechnology,” Science, vol. 304, no. 5679, pp. 1917–1919, Jun. 2004.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. G. Shuler and M. F. Bear, “Reward timing in the primary visual cortex,” Science, vol. 311, no. 5767, pp. 1606–1609, Mar. 2006.
A journal article with 3 authors
T. D. Halazonetis, V. G. Gorgoulis, and J. Bartek, “An oncogene-induced DNA damage model for cancer development,” Science, vol. 319, no. 5868, pp. 1352–1355, Mar. 2008.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
E. Haller et al., “Realization of an excited, strongly correlated quantum gas phase,” Science, vol. 325, no. 5945, pp. 1224–1227, Sep. 2009.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. P. Cowan, The Effects of Sound on People. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2016.
An edited book
D. R. Chowdhury, V. Rijmen, and A. Das, Eds., Progress in Cryptology - INDOCRYPT 2008: 9th International Conference on Cryptology in India, Kharagpur, India, December 14-17, 2008. Proceedings, vol. 5365. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
A. B. Imhoff, K. Beitzel, K. Stamer, and E. Klein, “Elbow: Surgical procedure/aftercare,” in Rehabilitation in Orthopedic Surgery, A. B. Imhoff, K. Beitzel, K. Stamer, E. Klein, and G. Mazzocca, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2016, pp. 61–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Cave Engraving May Be First Example Of Neanderthal Artwork,” IFLScience, Sep. 02, 2014. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Air Traffic Control: Complete and Enforced Architecture Needed for FAA Systems Modernization,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, AIMD-97-30, Feb. 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. Zhao, “Contextual Differential Item Functioning: Examining the Validity of Teaching Self-Efficacy Instruments Using Hierarchical Generalized Linear Modeling,” Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Pilon, “A.B.A., or Something Unlike It,” New York Times, p. SP1, Apr. 14, 2013.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion
ISSN (print)0885-8969
ScopeEnergy Engineering and Power Technology
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Other styles