How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. K. Behrensmeyer, “Atmosphere. Climate change and human evolution,” Science, vol. 311, no. 5760, pp. 476–478, Jan. 2006.
A journal article with 2 authors
B. G. Richmond and D. S. Strait, “Evidence that humans evolved from a knuckle-walking ancestor,” Nature, vol. 404, no. 6776, pp. 382–385, Mar. 2000.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. Qvarnström, J. E. Brommer, and L. Gustafsson, “Testing the genetics underlying the co-evolution of mate choice and ornament in the wild,” Nature, vol. 441, no. 7089, pp. 84–86, May 2006.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
L. Tian, J. Li, J. Sun, E. Ma, and Z.-W. Shan, “Visualizing size-dependent deformation mechanism transition in Sn,” Sci. Rep., vol. 3, p. 2113, 2013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
T. Kenny, The Nuts and Bolts of Implantable Device Therapy Pacemakers. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2014.
An edited book
T. Arai, H. Harino, M. Ohji, and W. J. Langston, Eds., Ecotoxicology of Antifouling Biocides. Tokyo: Springer Japan, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Chvála et al., “Discrete Power Devices and Power Modules,” in Smart Systems Integration and Simulation, N. Bombieri, M. Poncino, and G. Pravadelli, Eds. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp. 91–143.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Stories From The Sky: Astronomy In Indigenous Knowledge,” IFLScience, Jan. 05, 2015. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Highway Public-Private Partnerships: Securing Potential Benefits and Protecting the Public Interest Could Result from More Rigorous Up-front Analysis,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-08-1052T, Jul. 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
H. M. Pederson, “Decreasing blame and building therapeutic alliance: Clarifying central change processes in functional family therapy,” Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Barron, “When a Brooklyn Graveyard Can’t Expand Outward, It Looks Within,” New York Times, p. A22, Jun. 22, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion
ISSN (print)0885-8969
ScopeEnergy Engineering and Power Technology
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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