How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. Goldston, “Political climate,” Nature, vol. 450, no. 7168, p. 333, Nov. 2007.
A journal article with 2 authors
W. Y. Lee and S. M. Sine, “Principal pathway coupling agonist binding to channel gating in nicotinic receptors,” Nature, vol. 438, no. 7065, pp. 243–247, Nov. 2005.
A journal article with 3 authors
P. M. Sharp, J. C. Rayner, and B. H. Hahn, “Evolution. Great apes and zoonoses,” Science, vol. 340, no. 6130, pp. 284–286, Apr. 2013.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. F. Fang, G. Xu, T. Dong, P. Zheng, and N. L. Wang, “Structural phase transition in IrTe₂: a combined study of optical spectroscopy and band structure calculations,” Sci. Rep., vol. 3, p. 1153, Jan. 2013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
B. Maidl, M. Thewes, and U. Maidl, Handbook of Tunnel Engineering II. D-69451 Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, 2014.
An edited book
E. S. Prassas, Engineering Economics and Finance for Transportation Infrastructure, vol. 3. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
L. Puig and J. J. Guerrero, “Generic Scale-Space for a Camera Invariant Feature Extractor,” in Omnidirectional Vision Systems: Calibration, Feature Extraction and 3D Information, J. J. Guerrero, Ed. London: Springer, 2013, pp. 87–99.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion.

Blog post
J. Fang, “Poachers Kill Up To 40,000 African Elephants A Year,” IFLScience, 19-Aug-2014. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Commercial Drivers: Certification Process for Drivers with Serious Medical Conditions,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-08-826, Jun. 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
L. BenVau, “Effects of larval Nosema ceranae infection on adult honey bee (Apis mellifera) morphology and physiology,” Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
D. Grady, “When Illness Makes a Spouse a Stranger,” New York Times, p. A1, 05-May-2012.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion
ISSN (print)0885-8969
ScopeEnergy Engineering and Power Technology
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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