How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Lawler, “SOLAR SYSTEM EXPLORATION: Push to Revive Pluto Mission May Mean Competition for JPL,” Science, vol. 290, no. 5495, pp. 1270–1271, Nov. 2000.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. C. Ashworth and F. C. Thompson, “Palaeontology: A fly in the biogeographic ointment,” Nature, vol. 423, no. 6936, pp. 135–136, May 2003.
A journal article with 3 authors
E. B. Ford, S. Seager, and E. L. Turner, “Characterization of extrasolar terrestrial planets from diurnal photometric variability,” Nature, vol. 412, no. 6850, pp. 885–887, Aug. 2001.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Orieux, J. Boutari, M. Barbieri, M. Paternostro, and P. Mataloni, “Experimental linear-optics simulation of multipartite non-locality in the ground state of a quantum Ising ring,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 7184, Nov. 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. Kay and A. Tasman, Essentials of Psychiatry. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2006.
An edited book
B. Rzany and M. de Maio, Eds., Injectable Fillers in Aesthetic Medicine. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
E. A. H. Pilon-Smits, “Selenium in Plants,” in Progress in Botany: Vol. 76, U. Lüttge and W. Beyschlag, Eds., in Progress in Botany. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015, pp. 93–107.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion.

Blog post
T. Hale, “This Great Infographic Breaks Down The Top 5 Misconceptions About Evolution,” IFLScience, Oct. 26, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Highway Trust Fund Excise Taxes,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-04-213R, Nov. 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K. Strand, “Applying Public Relations Theory to Assess Service-Learning Relationships,” Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. K. Schilling, “A Sense of Place,” New York Times, p. M2100, Apr. 17, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion
ISSN (print)0885-8969
ScopeEnergy Engineering and Power Technology
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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