How to format your references using the Engineering Geology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Engineering Geology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kerr, R.A., 2000. SAVING KYOTO: Can the Kyoto Climate Treaty Be Saved From Itself? Science 290, 920–921.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nuttall, I., Dye, C., 2013. Epidemiology. The SARS wake-up call. Science 339, 1287–1288.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gil, S., Kott, A., Barabási, A.-L., 2014. A genetic epidemiology approach to cyber-security. Sci. Rep. 4, 5659.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tokunaga, K., Saitoh, N., Goldberg, I.G., Sakamoto, C., Yasuda, Y., Yoshida, Y., Yamanaka, S., Nakao, M., 2014. Computational image analysis of colony and nuclear morphology to evaluate human induced pluripotent stem cells. Sci. Rep. 4, 6996.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Harris, C., 2006. Electricity Markets. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Jazar, R.N., Dai, L. (Eds.), 2014. Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Applications 2. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Clever, D., Lang, J., Ulbrich, S., Ziems, C., 2012. Generalized Multilevel SQP-methods for PDAE-constrained Optimization Based on Space-Time Adaptive PDAE Solvers, in: Leugering, G., Engell, S., Griewank, A., Hinze, M., Rannacher, R., Schulz, V., Ulbrich, M., Ulbrich, S. (Eds.), Constrained Optimization and Optimal Control for Partial Differential Equations. Springer, Basel, pp. 51–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Engineering Geology.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2015. Female Capuchin Picks her Nose – Using a Stick [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1994. Air Quality Planning Processes at Selected Airports (No. RCED-94-197R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bonin, C., 2010. Spatial and temporal characteristics of electromagnetic activity in the brain prior to reaches to visual targets (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M., 2014. Mathematicians Are Hoping Calculations Add Up to the Perfect Bracket. New York Times SP7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kerr, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Kerr, 2000; Nuttall and Dye, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nuttall and Dye, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Tokunaga et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEngineering Geology
AbbreviationEng. Geol.
ISSN (print)0013-7952
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology

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