How to format your references using the Engineering Geology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Engineering Geology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Livio, M., 2002. Astrophysical spouts: the jet set. Nature 417, 125.
A journal article with 2 authors
Anderson, B.L., Winawer, J., 2005. Image segmentation and lightness perception. Nature 434, 79–83.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chan, P., Curtis, R.A., Warwicker, J., 2013. Soluble expression of proteins correlates with a lack of positively-charged surface. Sci. Rep. 3, 3333.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Liu, Y., Hu, W., Murakawa, Y., Yin, J., Wang, G., Landthaler, M., Yan, J., 2013. Cold-induced RNA-binding proteins regulate circadian gene expression by controlling alternative polyadenylation. Sci. Rep. 3, 2054.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zadora, G., Martyna, A., Ramos, D., Aitken, C., 2013. Statistical Analysis in Forensic Science. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Selvaggi, S., Vollono, E., Sicignano, G. (Eds.), 2007. e-Learning: Nuovi strumenti per insegnare, apprendere, comunicare online. Springer, Milano.
A chapter in an edited book
Ignatiev, A.A., Lyashenko, A.V., 2010. Generalization Control Characteristics in Generative Structures, in: Lyashenko, A.V. (Ed.), Heteromagnetic Microelectronics: Microsystems of Active Type. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 149–172.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Engineering Geology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2013. Researchers grow human kidney using stem cells [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2002. Executive Office of the President: Analysis of Mandated Report on Key Information Technology Areas (No. GAO-02-779R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brown, J.D., 2012. Disparity in healthcare among Black Americans in the United States, a review of the literature (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B., 2017. A Drink, and a Dissenting Opinion. New York Times C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Livio, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Anderson and Winawer, 2005; Livio, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Anderson and Winawer, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEngineering Geology
AbbreviationEng. Geol.
ISSN (print)0013-7952
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology

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