How to format your references using the Experimental Cell Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Experimental Cell Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C. Both, Comment on “Rapid advance of spring arrival dates in long-distance migratory birds,” Science. 315 (2007) 598; author reply 598.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. Pérez-Gussinyé, A.B. Watts, The long-term strength of Europe and its implications for plate-forming processes, Nature. 436 (2005) 381–384.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. Powell, S. Shennan, M.G. Thomas, Late Pleistocene demography and the appearance of modern human behavior, Science. 324 (2009) 1298–1301.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Y. Todo, H. Kitazato, J. Hashimoto, A.J. Gooday, Simple foraminifera flourish at the ocean’s deepest point, Science. 307 (2005) 689.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
C.R. Engle, K.K. Quagrainie, M.M. Dey, Seafood and Aquaculture Marketing Handbook, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2016.
An edited book
K.J. Donnelly, A.-K. Wallengren, eds., Today’s Sounds for Yesterday’s Films: Making Music for Silent Cinema, Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
P.L. Dobkin, C.S. Hassed, Steps for Starting and Sustaining Programs, in: C.S. Hassed (Ed.), Mindful Medical Practitioners: A Guide for Clinicians and Educators, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 65–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Experimental Cell Research.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Nigeria Celebrates One Year Without Polio Case, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Highway Trust Fund Excise Taxes, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S.Y. Shenasi, The Roots of Music Therapy: Healing the Wounds of the Psyche, Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Risen, John Platt, 80, U.S. Spy Who Befriended Foe, New York Times. (2017) B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleExperimental Cell Research
AbbreviationExp. Cell Res.
ISSN (print)0014-4827
ScopeCell Biology

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