How to format your references using the Experimental Cell Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Experimental Cell Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
L. Lederman, The pleasure of learning, Nature. 430 (2004) 617.
A journal article with 2 authors
B.P. Allmann, P.M. Shearer, A high-frequency secondary event during the 2004 Parkfield earthquake, Science. 318 (2007) 1279–1283.
A journal article with 3 authors
M.L. Monje, H. Toda, T.D. Palmer, Inflammatory blockade restores adult hippocampal neurogenesis, Science. 302 (2003) 1760–1765.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
E.H.G. Backus, A. Eichler, A.W. Kleyn, M. Bonn, Real-time observation of molecular motion on a surface, Science. 310 (2005) 1790–1793.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
V.G. Pangarkar, Design of Multiphase Reactors, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2014.
An edited book
J. Elen, E. Stahl, R. Bromme, G. Clarebout, eds., Links Between Beliefs and Cognitive Flexibility: Lessons Learned, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
J. Daruich, E. Manero, A. Parietti, The Liver and Surgery, in: H.A. Caviglia, L.P. Solimeno (Eds.), Orthopedic Surgery in Patients with Hemophilia, Springer, Milano, 2008: pp. 33–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Experimental Cell Research.

Blog post
B. Taub, New Genetic Evidence Reveals Gaétan Dugas Was Not “Patient Zero” For HIV In North America, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Telecommunications: Costs Reported by Federal Organizations for Fiscal Year 1995, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S. Tabak, Aspiring States at the International Court of Justice, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Shpigel, Taking Twisted Turns, New York Times. (2016) SP7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleExperimental Cell Research
AbbreviationExp. Cell Res.
ISSN (print)0014-4827
ScopeCell Biology

Other styles