How to format your references using the Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wadman, M., 2015. Treatment: When less is more. Nature 528, S126-7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Costache, M.V., Valenzuela, S.O., 2010. Experimental spin ratchet. Science 330, 1645–1648.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ainsworth, S., Prain, V., Tytler, R., 2011. Science education. Drawing to learn in science. Science 333, 1096–1097.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Li, J., Ishii, T., Feinstein, P., Mombaerts, P., 2004. Odorant receptor gene choice is reset by nuclear transfer from mouse olfactory sensory neurons. Nature 428, 393–399.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rooney, T., 2010. IP Address Management. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Ullberg, E. (Ed.), 2015. New Perspectives on Internationalization and Competitiveness: Integrating Economics, Innovation and Higher Education. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Hong, X., Ma, L., 2012. Engineering and Development in Modern China: Challenges and Responses, in: Christensen, S.H., Mitcham, C., Li, B., An, Y. (Eds.), Engineering, Development and Philosophy: American, Chinese and European Perspectives, Philosophy of Engineering and Technology. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 47–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2015. Watch This Homemade Electromagnetic Gun Vaporize A Piggybank [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2015. Aviation Security: TSA Has Taken Steps to Improve Oversight of Key Programs, but Additional Actions Are Needed (No. GAO-15-678T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kunihiro, A.G., 2014. The relationship between dietary omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid intake and colorectal cancer (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt, L.F., 2007. Appeal Goes Against Couple’s Animal Shelter. New York Times 14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wadman, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Costache and Valenzuela, 2010; Wadman, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Costache and Valenzuela, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleEngineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence
AbbreviationEng. Appl. Artif. Intell.
ISSN (print)0952-1976
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Control and Systems Engineering
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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