How to format your references using the Energy, Ecology and Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy, Ecology and Environment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sachs J (2009) Recession Watch: Boost the developing world. Nature 457:958
A journal article with 2 authors
Hilbert M, López P (2011) The world’s technological capacity to store, communicate, and compute information. Science 332:60–65
A journal article with 3 authors
Yeung LY, Ash JL, Young ED (2015) Isotope geochemistry. Biological signatures in clumped isotopes of O₂. Science 348:431–434
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Ourjoumtsev A, Tualle-Brouri R, Laurat J, Grangier P (2006) Generating optical Schrödinger kittens for quantum information processing. Science 312:83–86

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Drago C (2015) Implant Restorations. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Neyret P, Demey G (eds) (2014) Surgery of the Knee. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
Smith GF (2011) The Generation Of Integrity Bases. In: Rilvil RS (ed) Non-linear Continuum Theories in Mechanics and Physics and their Applications. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 311–351

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy, Ecology and Environment.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) Zoo Diets Are Making Monkey Gut Bacteria More Human-Like. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2001) USDA Graduate School: Revenue Reporting Needs to Be Improved. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Purdy DW (2017) Identifying Shallow Foundation Failure Modes and Mechanisms Using Surveillance of a Transparent Granular Soil Surrogate. Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper M (2017) Watching Neo-Nazis in Virginia, From Germany. New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sachs 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Sachs 2009; Hilbert and López 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hilbert and López 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Ourjoumtsev et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy, Ecology and Environment
AbbreviationEnergy Ecol. Environ.
ISSN (print)2363-7692
ISSN (online)2363-8338

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