How to format your references using the Energy, Ecology and Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy, Ecology and Environment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lazic SE (2013) Comment on “Stress in puberty unmasks latent neuropathological consequences of prenatal immune activation in mice.” Science 340:811
A journal article with 2 authors
Brown JW, Braver TS (2005) Learned predictions of error likelihood in the anterior cingulate cortex. Science 307:1118–1121
A journal article with 3 authors
Yano J-I, Talagrand O, Drossart P (2003) Outer planets: Origins of atmospheric zonal winds. Nature 421:36
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Gally C, Eimer S, Richmond JE, Bessereau J-L (2004) A transmembrane protein required for acetylcholine receptor clustering in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nature 431:578–582

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Massad JJ, Cagna DR, Goodacre CJ, et al (2017) Application of the Neutral Zone in Prosthodontics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Grosjean H (ed) (2005) Fine-Tuning of RNA Functions by Modification and Editing. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Navarro-Prieto R, Gil Rodríguez EP (2006) Empirical User Studies in the Design of Mobile Distributed Collaborative Applications. In: Navarro-Prieto R, Vidal JL (eds) HCI related papers of Interacción 2004. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 41–54

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy, Ecology and Environment.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2017) The Vaccine Safety Challenge Is Beyond Stupid. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) University Research: Controlling Inappropriate Access to Federally Funded Research Results. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wang S (2017) Experimental Investigations of the Critical Flowback Velocity for Various Types of Proppant in Hydraulic-Fracturing Fluids with Different Viscosities. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murray J (2016) Defying an Unwritten Rule of Escalator Riding. New York Times A15

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lazic 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Brown and Braver 2005; Lazic 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brown and Braver 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Gally et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy, Ecology and Environment
AbbreviationEnergy Ecol. Environ.
ISSN (print)2363-7692
ISSN (online)2363-8338

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