How to format your references using the Energy, Ecology and Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy, Ecology and Environment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Huber M (2008) Climate change. A hotter greenhouse? Science 321:353–354
A journal article with 2 authors
Lavik E, Ustin J (2012) Medicine. Leveraging shear stress to bust clots with nanoparticles. Science 337:658–659
A journal article with 3 authors
Homer H, Gui L, Carroll J (2009) A spindle assembly checkpoint protein functions in prophase I arrest and prometaphase progression. Science 326:991–994
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Dale JK, Maroto M, Dequeant M-L, et al (2003) Periodic notch inhibition by lunatic fringe underlies the chick segmentation clock. Nature 421:275–278

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cardon A, Itmi M (2016) New Autonomous Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Lucangelo U, Pelosi P, Zin WA, Aliverti A (eds) (2008) Respiratory System and Artificial Ventilation. Springer, Milano
A chapter in an edited book
Schrautzer J, Rinker A, Jensen K, et al (2007) Succession and Restoration of Drained Fens: Perspectives from Northwestern Europe. In: Walker LR, Walker J, Hobbs RJ (eds) Linking Restoration and Ecological Succession. Springer, New York, NY, pp 90–120

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy, Ecology and Environment.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Is Your Cat Lowering Your Grades? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1972) Payroll Activities, Atlanta Postal Data Center. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rehan TY (2016) Analysis of Life-Cycle Cost, Properties, and Field Performance of Parking Lot Pavements. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gurley G (2016) Where Everybody Knows Your Name and Accepts Your Politics. New York Times D4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Huber 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Huber 2008; Lavik and Ustin 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lavik and Ustin 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Dale et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy, Ecology and Environment
AbbreviationEnergy Ecol. Environ.
ISSN (print)2363-7692
ISSN (online)2363-8338

Other styles