How to format your references using the Energy, Ecology and Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy, Ecology and Environment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schoeninger MJ (2012) Palaeoanthropology: the ancestral dinner table. Nature 487:42–43
A journal article with 2 authors
Bercovici D, Ricard Y (2014) Plate tectonics, damage and inheritance. Nature 508:513–516
A journal article with 3 authors
Qian H, Wang X, Zhang Y (2012) Comment on “Disentangling the drivers of β diversity along latitudinal and elevational gradients.” Science 335:1573; author reply 1573
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Crowhurst JC, Goncharov AF, Sadigh B, et al (2006) Synthesis and characterization of the nitrides of platinum and iridium. Science 311:1275–1278

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety (2010) A Practical Approach to Hazard Identification for Operations and Maintenance Workers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Bouabana-Tebibel T, Rubin SH (eds) (2015) Formalisms for Reuse and Systems Integration. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Yokobori T (2006) ICF contribution to fracture research in the second half of the 20th century. In: Carpinteri A, Mai Y-W, Ritchie RO (eds) Advances in Fracture Research: Honour and Plenary Lectures Presented at the 11th International Conference on Fracture (ICF11), Held in Turin, Italy, on March 20–25, 2005. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 37–45

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy, Ecology and Environment.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) Belly-Flopping Whale Gives Kayakers A Surprise. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1996) SSA Initiatives to Identify Coaching. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gan K (2011) A Parity-Violating Spin Rotation Measurement of Transversely Polarized Cold Neutrons Through a Liquid Helium Target. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K (2003) Reclaiming a Shabby Block of Maritime History. New York Times 147

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schoeninger 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Schoeninger 2012; Bercovici and Ricard 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bercovici and Ricard 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Crowhurst et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy, Ecology and Environment
AbbreviationEnergy Ecol. Environ.
ISSN (print)2363-7692
ISSN (online)2363-8338

Other styles