How to format your references using the Energy, Ecology and Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy, Ecology and Environment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tammaro P (2009) Journal club. A physiologist notes the similarities between animal and plant electricity. Nature 458:11
A journal article with 2 authors
Godley LA, Mondragón A (2011) Molecular biology. Preference by exclusion. Science 331:1017–1018
A journal article with 3 authors
Sereno MI, Pitzalis S, Martinez A (2001) Mapping of contralateral space in retinotopic coordinates by a parietal cortical area in humans. Science 294:1350–1354
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Pupo G, Ibba F, Ascough DMH, et al (2018) Asymmetric nucleophilic fluorination under hydrogen bonding phase-transfer catalysis. Science 360:638–642

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Baldwin CJ (2015) The 10 Principles of Food Industry Sustainability. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Rathgeber W, Schrogl K-U, Williamson RA (eds) (2010) The Fair and Responsible Use of Space: An International Perspective. Springer, Vienna
A chapter in an edited book
Blanton JO, Andrade F, Ferreira MA (2006) The Relationship of Hydrodynamics to Morphology in Tidal Creek and Salt Marsh Systems of South Carolina and Georgia. In: Kleppel GS, DeVoe MR, Rawson MV (eds) Changing Land Use Patterns in the Coastal Zone: Managing Environmental Quality in Rapidly Developing Regions. Springer, New York, NY, pp 93–107

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy, Ecology and Environment.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Archaeologists Believe They May Have Found Queen Nefertiti’s Tomb. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2000) Federal Communications Commission: Narrowband Personal Communications Services and Competitive Bidding. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Drake DA (2013) Viscoelastic characterization of vapor-grown carbon nanofiber/vinyl ester nanocomposites using a response surface methodology. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard B (2017) Saudi Prince Rejects Talks With Iran. New York Times A9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Tammaro 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Tammaro 2009; Godley and Mondragón 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Godley and Mondragón 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Pupo et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy, Ecology and Environment
AbbreviationEnergy Ecol. Environ.
ISSN (print)2363-7692
ISSN (online)2363-8338

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