How to format your references using the Energy, Ecology and Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy, Ecology and Environment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Snyder SH (2005) Obituary: Julius Axelrod (1912-2004). Nature 433:593
A journal article with 2 authors
Jin J, MacMillan DWC (2015) Alcohols as alkylating agents in heteroarene C-H functionalization. Nature 525:87–90
A journal article with 3 authors
Turner S, Evans P, Hawkesworth C (2001) Ultrafast source-to-surface movement of melt at island arcs from 226Ra-230Th systematics. Science 292:1363–1366
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Wang Z, Ying P, Li P, et al (2013) Switching suppression and enhancement of fluorescence and six-wave mixing by phase modulation. Sci Rep 3:3417

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Grous A (2012) Fracture Mechanics 3. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA
An edited book
Boulton AJM (2009) Managing Neuropathic Pain in the Diabetic Patient, Second Edition. Springer Healthcare Ltd., Tarporley
A chapter in an edited book
Dwiyanti MS, Yamada T (2013) Molecular Mapping and Breeding for Genes/QTLS Related to Climate Change. In: Kole C (ed) Genomics and Breeding for Climate-Resilient Crops: Vol. 1 Concepts and Strategies. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 179–212

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy, Ecology and Environment.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Slowdown Of Brain’s Waste Removal System Could Drive Alzheimer’s. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1987) DOD Voluntary Education: Determining and Meeting Postsecondary Education Needs in Europe. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Anderson D (2004) Chamber Music in Early Piano Study: A Guide to Repertoire. Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K (2008) Cuban Comfort. New York Times NJ14

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Snyder 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Snyder 2005; Jin and MacMillan 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jin and MacMillan 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy, Ecology and Environment
AbbreviationEnergy Ecol. Environ.
ISSN (print)2363-7692
ISSN (online)2363-8338

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