How to format your references using the Emerging Themes in Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Emerging Themes in Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Holt RD. Evolutionary biology. Use it or lose it. Nature. 2000;407:689–90.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Schiermeier Q, Tollefson J. Climate change: a Nobel cause. Nature. 2007;449:766–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Sweeney KE, Roering JJ, Ellis C. GEOMORPHOLOGY. Experimental evidence for hillslope control of landscape scale. Science. 2015;349:51–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Swingler S, Brichacek B, Jacque J-M, Ulich C, Zhou J, Stevenson M. HIV-1 Nef intersects the macrophage CD40L signalling pathway to promote resting-cell infection. Nature. 2003;424:213–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Phillips JJ, Phillips P, Pulliam A. Measuring ROI in Environment, Health, and Safety. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
1. Öztürk M, Böer B, Barth H-J, Clüsener-Godt M, Khan MA, Breckle S-W, editors. Sabkha Ecosystems: Volume III: Africa and Southern Europe. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Cosci F. Staging of Panic Disorder: Implications for Neurobiology and Treatment. In: Nardi AE, Freire RCR, editors. Panic Disorder: Neurobiological and Treatment Aspects. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 113–25.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Emerging Themes in Epidemiology.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Japanese Black Bears Are Ecosystem Engineers, Bringing Light Into Forests [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Questions Persist about Federal Support for Development of Curriculum Materials and Behavior Modification Techniques Used in Local Schools. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977 Apr. Report No.: HRD-77-49.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Torres N. Do family nurse practitioner students understand the physiological changes associated with andropause in men over forty? [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Wallace N. The Minivan vs. the Maserati. New York Times. 2016 Sep 26;A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEmerging Themes in Epidemiology
AbbreviationEmerg. Themes Epidemiol.
ISSN (online)1742-7622

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