How to format your references using the Emerging Themes in Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Emerging Themes in Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Cosgrove DJ. Loosening of plant cell walls by expansins. Nature. 2000;407:321–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Wiens DA, Snider NO. Repeating deep earthquakes: evidence for fault reactivation at great depth. Science. 2001;293:1463–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Velev OD, Prevo BG, Bhatt KH. On-chip manipulation of free droplets. Nature. 2003;426:515–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. McNeil BI, Matear RJ, Key RM, Bullister JL, Sarmiento JL. Anthropogenic CO2 uptake by the ocean based on the global chlorofluorocarbon data set. Science. 2003;299:235–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Hübschmann H-J. Handbook of GC-MS. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2015.
An edited book
1. Berndtsson M. Thesis Projects: A Guide for Students in Computer Science and Information Systems. Hansson J, Olsson B, Lundell B, editors. London: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Seidl M, Scholz M, Huemer C, Kappel G. The State Machine Diagram. In: Scholz M, Huemer C, Kappel G, editors. UML @ Classroom: An Introduction to Object-Oriented Modeling. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 85–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Emerging Themes in Epidemiology.

Blog post
1. Hamilton K. Time Crystals: How Scientists Created A New State Of Matter [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: Airport Perimeter and Access Control Security Would Benefit from Risk Assessment and Strategy Updates. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016 May. Report No.: GAO-16-632.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Felarca CU. A burning problem: Skin protection practices among college nursing students and non-nursing college students [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Haikalis G. Don’t Rehab La Guardia Airport. Close It. New York Times. 2015 May 8;A25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEmerging Themes in Epidemiology
AbbreviationEmerg. Themes Epidemiol.
ISSN (online)1742-7622

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