How to format your references using the Emerging Infectious Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Emerging Infectious Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tata J. The domino effect. Nature. 2004 Sep 30;431(7008):513.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fitch WT, Hauser MD. Computational constraints on syntactic processing in a nonhuman primate. Science. 2004 Jan 16;303(5656):377–80.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nuttall WJ, Clarke RH, Glowacki BA. Resources: Stop squandering helium. Nature. 2012 May 30;485(7400):573–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhao ZD, Yang Z, Zhang Z, Zhou T, Huang ZG, Lai YC. Emergence of scaling in human-interest dynamics. Sci Rep. 2013 Dec 11;3:3472.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schütz H, Wiedemann PM, Hennings W, Mertens J, Clauberg M. Comparative Risk Assessment. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2006.
An edited book
Kim TH, Ma J, Fang WC, Park B, Kang BH, Ślęzak D, editors. U- and E-Service, Science and Technology: International Conference UNESST 2010, Held as Part of the Future Generation Information Technology Conference, FGIT 2010, Jeju Island, Korea, December 13-15, 2010. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. XI, 233 p. 139 illus. (Communications in Computer and Information Science; vol. 124).
A chapter in an edited book
Lukkarinen J. Kinetic Theory of Phonons in Weakly Anharmonic Particle Chains. In: Lepri S, editor. Thermal Transport in Low Dimensions: From Statistical Physics to Nanoscale Heat Transfer. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 159–214. (Lecture Notes in Physics).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Emerging Infectious Diseases.

Blog post
Andrew E. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. 10 Weirdest Species of Shark. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Tribal Transportation: Better Data Could Improve Road Management and Inform Indian Student Attendance Strategies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2017 May. Report No.: GAO-17-423.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Warwick-Smith KM. Remembering Prudence: Tracking the Iconography of a Cardinal Virtue to Her Resurgence in Depth Psychology [Doctoral dissertation]. [Carpinteria, CA]: Pacifica Graduate Institute; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B. Weeknd’s ‘Starboy’ at No. 1 for Third Week. New York Times. 2017 Jan 23;C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleEmerging Infectious Diseases
AbbreviationEmerg. Infect. Dis.
ISSN (print)1080-6040
ISSN (online)1080-6059
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

Other styles