How to format your references using the Emerging Infectious Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Emerging Infectious Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Walters HRJ. Physics. Antimatter atomic physics. Science. 2010 Nov 5;330(6005):762–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sriskantharajah S, Ley SC. Cell biology. Turning off inflammation signaling. Science. 2010 Feb 26;327(5969):1093–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ogawa Y, Sun BK, Lee JT. Intersection of the RNA interference and X-inactivation pathways. Science. 2008 Jun 6;320(5881):1336–41.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Porath D, Bezryadin A, de Vries S, Dekker C. Direct measurement of electrical transport through DNA molecules. Nature. 2000 Feb 10;403(6770):635–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Colloms M, Darlington P. High Performance Loudspeakers. West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd,.; 2005.
An edited book
Rahim MM, Idowu SO, editors. Social Audit Regulation: Development, Challenges and Opportunities. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. XXI, 331 p. 19 illus., 11 illus. in color. (CSR, Sustainability, Ethics & Governance).
A chapter in an edited book
Lowe EK, Cuomo C, Arnone MI. A Differential Transcriptomic Approach to Compare Target Genes of Homologous Transcription Factors in Echinoderm Species. In: Rogato A, Zazzu V, Guarracino M, editors. Dynamics of Mathematical Models in Biology: Bringing Mathematics to Life. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 55–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Emerging Infectious Diseases.

Blog post
Fang J. New Species of Giant Tortoise Found In The Galapagos [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Narcotic Addiction Treatment and Rehabilitation Programs in New York City. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1973 Apr. Report No.: B-166217.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Almasaari AH. Arab American women’s identity crises in Mohja Kahf’s “The Girl in the Tangerine Scarf” and Laila Halaby’s “West of the Jordan” [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yablonsky L. The Insider. New York Times. 2012 Apr 1;M222.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleEmerging Infectious Diseases
AbbreviationEmerg. Infect. Dis.
ISSN (print)1080-6040
ISSN (online)1080-6059
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

Other styles