How to format your references using the Emerging Infectious Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Emerging Infectious Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cyranokski D. Lack of infrastructure hampers virus monitoring. Nature. 2004 Feb 5;427(6974):472.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lankau RA, Strauss SY. Mutual feedbacks maintain both genetic and species diversity in a plant community. Science. 2007 Sep 14;317(5844):1561–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Amorisco NC, Evans NW, van de Ven G. The remnant of a merger between two dwarf galaxies in Andromeda II. Nature. 2014 Mar 20;507(7492):335–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Liu Q, Xin W, He P, Turner D, Yin J, Gan Y, et al. Interleukin-17 inhibits adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Sci Rep. 2014 Dec 19;4:7554.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zarbock G, Lynch S, Ammann A, Ringer S. Mindfulness for Therapists. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Clément G, Bukley A, editors. Artificial Gravity. New York, NY: Springer; 2007. XXI, 364 p. (The Space Technology Library; vol. 20).
A chapter in an edited book
Yamakawa H, Yoshizaki T. Chain Statistics: Helical Wormlike Chains. In: Yoshizaki T, editor. Helical Wormlike Chains in Polymer Solutions. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2016. p. 59–127.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Emerging Infectious Diseases.

Blog post
Fang J. This Microbe’s Hair is Actually a Nanowire for Powering Itself [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Safety: Airlines Should Check Pilot Applicants’ Safety History. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988 Jun. Report No.: RCED-88-154.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Claypool KK. Organizational Success: How the Presence of Happiness in the Workplace Affects Employee Engagement that Leads to Organizational Success [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly K. A Top Goldman Veteran Gets Trump’s Attention on Jobs, Taxes and More. New York Times. 2017 Feb 11;A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleEmerging Infectious Diseases
AbbreviationEmerg. Infect. Dis.
ISSN (print)1080-6040
ISSN (online)1080-6059
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

Other styles