How to format your references using the Emerging Infectious Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Emerging Infectious Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Corliss J. Exercise: Powering up. Nature. 2012 May 30;485(7400):S62-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gilmore MS, Ferretti JJ. Microbiology. The thin line between gut commensal and pathogen. Science. 2003 Mar 28;299(5615):1999–2002.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kourtis N, Nikoletopoulou V, Tavernarakis N. Small heat-shock proteins protect from heat-stroke-associated neurodegeneration. Nature. 2012 Oct 11;490(7419):213–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Nishimura Y, Onoe H, Morichika Y, Perfiliev S, Tsukada H, Isa T. Time-dependent central compensatory mechanisms of finger dexterity after spinal cord injury. Science. 2007 Nov 16;318(5853):1150–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Alberty RA. Enzyme Kinetics: Rapid-Equilibrium Enzyme Kinetics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011. (Methods of Biochemical Analysis).
An edited book
Díaz‐Cruz MS, Barceló D, editors. Personal Care Products in the Aquatic Environment. 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. XIV, 413 p. 121 illus., 9 illus. in color. (The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry; vol. 36).
A chapter in an edited book
Koshmanenko V, Dudkin M. Rigged Hilbert Spaces. In: Dudkin M, editor. The Method of Rigged Spaces in Singular Perturbation Theory of Self-Adjoint Operators. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 61–71. (Operator Theory: Advances and Applications).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Emerging Infectious Diseases.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Physicists Think They May Have Accidentally Discovered Dark Matter. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Department of Labor’s Past and Future Role in Offender Rehabilitation. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1975 Aug. Report No.: MWD-75-91.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Arendt KR. Symbiosis establishment and ecological effects of endohyphal bacteria on foliar fungi [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tucson, AZ]: University of Arizona; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED MJ. Tequila Maker Sold for Up to $1 Billion. New York Times. 2017 Jun 21;B7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleEmerging Infectious Diseases
AbbreviationEmerg. Infect. Dis.
ISSN (print)1080-6040
ISSN (online)1080-6059
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

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