How to format your references using the Electronic Markets citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Electronic Markets. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hoag, H. (2004). Testing new ground. Nature, 429(6992), 682–683.
A journal article with 2 authors
Penner-Hahn, J. E., & Yocum, C. F. (2005). Biochemistry. The photosynthesis “oxygen clock” gets a new number. Science (New York, N.Y.), 310(5750), 982–983.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nir, E., Kleinermanns, K., & de Vries, M. S. (2000). Pairing of isolated nucleic-acid bases in the absence of the DNA backbone. Nature, 408(6815), 949–951.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Konopka, G., Bomar, J. M., Winden, K., Coppola, G., Jonsson, Z. O., Gao, F., et al. (2009). Human-specific transcriptional regulation of CNS development genes by FOXP2. Nature, 462(7270), 213–217.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Montgomery, G. E., & Schuch, H. C. (2007). GIS Data Conversion Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Tan, K.-Y. (Ed.). (2015). Transdisciplinary Perioperative Care in Colorectal Surgery: An Integrative Approach. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Hue, P. T. B., Wohlgemuth, S., Echizen, I., Thuy, D. T. B., & Thuc, N. D. (2010). Fine-Grained Access Control for Electronic Health Record Systems. In T.-H. Kim, J. Ma, W.-C. Fang, B. Park, B.-H. Kang, & D. Ślęzak (Eds.), U- and E-Service, Science and Technology: International Conference UNESST 2010, Held as Part of the Future Generation Information Technology Conference, FGIT 2010, Jeju Island, Korea, December 13-15, 2010. Proceedings (pp. 31–38). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Electronic Markets.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2017, January 30). This Woman Lived Without Lungs For Six Days. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1979). GAO’s Need for an Interim Management Data System (MDS) (No. B-161744). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shamloo Aliabadi, E. (2013). The effect of distortion on trajectory of diesel Particulate Matters (PM) from mobile sources (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Buckley, C. (2017, June 27). Tycoon’s Claims Reverberate in China Despite Censorship and Thin Evidence. New York Times, p. A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hoag 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Hoag 2004; Penner-Hahn and Yocum 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Penner-Hahn and Yocum 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Konopka et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleElectronic Markets
ISSN (print)1019-6781
ISSN (online)1422-8890
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Management of Technology and Innovation
Computer Science Applications
Economics and Econometrics

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