How to format your references using the Electronic Markets citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Electronic Markets. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marraffini, L. A. (2015). CRISPR-Cas immunity in prokaryotes. Nature, 526(7571), 55–61.
A journal article with 2 authors
Libuda, D. E., & Winston, F. (2006). Amplification of histone genes by circular chromosome formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nature, 443(7114), 1003–1007.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mani, R. G., Kriisa, A., & Wegscheider, W. (2013). Size-dependent giant-magnetoresistance in millimeter scale GaAs/AlGaAs 2D electron devices. Scientific reports, 3, 2747.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Huelsenbeck, J. P., Ronquist, F., Nielsen, R., & Bollback, J. P. (2001). Bayesian inference of phylogeny and its impact on evolutionary biology. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5550), 2310–2314.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ruiz, J.-L. (2017). Supra-Gingival Minimally Invasive Dentistry. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Alston, M., & Whittenbury, K. (Eds.). (2013). Research, Action and Policy: Addressing the Gendered Impacts of Climate Change. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Nguyen, G. P., & Andersen, H. J. (2011). Fast and Efficient Local Features Detection for Building Recognition. In H. Kwaśnicka & L. C. Jain (Eds.), Innovations in Intelligent Image Analysis (pp. 87–104). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Electronic Markets.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, March 19). Tool Use in Dolphins has Shaped Their Genetic Make Up. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2001). Serving the Congress and the Nation: Information Technology Information (No. GAO-01-413SP). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chamoun, T. J. (2014). A paleopathological survey of ancient Peruvian crania housed at the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts: A special emphasis on scurvy (Doctoral dissertation). Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J. (2017, January 20). Inauguration Watch: Mr. Reality TV Goes to Washington. New York Times, p. A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Marraffini 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Libuda and Winston 2006; Marraffini 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Libuda and Winston 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Huelsenbeck et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleElectronic Markets
ISSN (print)1019-6781
ISSN (online)1422-8890
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Management of Technology and Innovation
Computer Science Applications
Economics and Econometrics

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