How to format your references using the Electronic Markets citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Electronic Markets. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clary, D. C. (2008). Quantum dynamics of chemical reactions. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5890), 789–791.
A journal article with 2 authors
Salehi-Ashtiani, K., & Szostak, J. W. (2001). In vitro evolution suggests multiple origins for the hammerhead ribozyme. Nature, 414(6859), 82–84.
A journal article with 3 authors
Scatena, L. F., Brown, M. G., & Richmond, G. L. (2001). Water at hydrophobic surfaces: weak hydrogen bonding and strong orientation effects. Science (New York, N.Y.), 292(5518), 908–912.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Vellai, T., Takacs-Vellai, K., Zhang, Y., Kovacs, A. L., Orosz, L., & Müller, F. (2003). Genetics: influence of TOR kinase on lifespan in C. elegans. Nature, 426(6967), 620.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Segal, H. P. (2012). Utopias. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Benedikter, R., & Siepmann, K. (Eds.). (2015). Chile in Transition: Prospects and Challenges for Latin America’s Forerunner of Development. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Carsrud, A. L., & Brännback, M. (2012). Case Three: Surviving Revolution, But Succumbing to Succession – The Story of Five Siblings. In M. Brännback (Ed.), Family Firms in Transition: Case Studies on Succession, Inheritance, and Governance (pp. 25–32). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Electronic Markets.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, April 2). The Strangest Defence Mechanisms In The Animal Kingdom. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1990). Issues Related to FAA’s Modernization of the Air Traffic Control System (No. T-RCED-90-32). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Steiner, C. P. (2015). Three essays in applied microeconomics (Doctoral dissertation). University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017, April 29). Encouraging Signs for the Ailing Mets. New York Times, p. SP5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Clary 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Clary 2008; Salehi-Ashtiani and Szostak 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Salehi-Ashtiani and Szostak 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Vellai et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleElectronic Markets
ISSN (print)1019-6781
ISSN (online)1422-8890
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Management of Technology and Innovation
Computer Science Applications
Economics and Econometrics

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