How to format your references using the Electronic Markets citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Electronic Markets. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cohen, P. (2000). How to make diplomats scientifically literate. Nature, 405(6783), 116.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lukin, M. D., & Imamoğlu, A. (2001). Controlling photons using electromagnetically induced transparency. Nature, 413(6853), 273–276.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ballester, G. E., Sing, D. K., & Herbert, F. (2007). The signature of hot hydrogen in the atmosphere of the extrasolar planet HD 209458b. Nature, 445(7127), 511–514.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Xia, X., Chen, W., Li, J., Chen, X., Rui, R., Liu, C., et al. (2014). Body mass index and risk of breast cancer: a nonlinear dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. Scientific reports, 4, 7480.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Focardi, S. M., Fabozzi, F. J., & Bali, T. G. (2013). Mathematical Methods for Finance. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Woodin, M. A., & Maffei, A. (Eds.). (2011). Inhibitory Synaptic Plasticity (1st ed.). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Surasarang, S. H., & Williams, R. O. (2016). Co-solvent and Complexation Systems. In R. O. Williams III, A. B. Watts, & D. A. Miller (Eds.), Formulating Poorly Water Soluble Drugs (pp. 215–256). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Electronic Markets.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, August 28). Most Psychology Papers Can’t Be Reproduced. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1993). Space Station: Program Instability and Cost Growth Continue Pending Redesign (No. NSIAD-93-187). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Smith, S. M. (2017). The Relationship Between Political Affiliation and Student Achievement in the Areas of Reading and Mathematics, with Respect to Black Students (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (2007, February 11). The Bolshoi Tries Partnering With a Friend From America. New York Times, p. AR10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cohen 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Cohen 2000; Lukin and Imamoğlu 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lukin and Imamoğlu 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Xia et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleElectronic Markets
ISSN (print)1019-6781
ISSN (online)1422-8890
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Management of Technology and Innovation
Computer Science Applications
Economics and Econometrics

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