How to format your references using the Electronic Markets citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Electronic Markets. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2002). Building cooperation New York. Nature, 419(6905), 4–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Marquis, M., & Tans, P. (2008). Climate change. Carbon crucible. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5875), 460–461.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yuan, X., Xiao, S., & Taylor, T. N. (2005). Lichen-like symbiosis 600 million years ago. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5724), 1017–1020.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Gur, I., Fromer, N. A., Geier, M. L., & Alivisatos, A. P. (2005). Air-stable all-inorganic nanocrystal solar cells processed from solution. Science (New York, N.Y.), 310(5747), 462–465.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wootton, R. J., & Smith, C. (2014). Reproductive Biology of Teleost Fishes. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Nelson-Piercy, C. (2007). Obstetric Medicine: A Problem-Based Approach. (J. Girling, Ed.). London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ceppi, G. (2015). Understanding the Past While Planning the Future: Times and Ambitions About AdvanceDesign. In M. Celi (Ed.), Advanced Design Cultures: Long-Term Perspective and Continuous Innovation (pp. 53–67). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Electronic Markets.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2017, March 21). What In The Name Of Thor Are These Icelandic Zig-Zags? IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2001). USDA Electronic Filing: Progress Made, But Central Leadership and Comprehensive Implementation Plan Needed (No. GAO-01-324). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cubarrubia, A. P. (2009). Exploring the influence of external standards of institutional effectiveness on program assessment in student affairs (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, S. (2002, June 21). Op-Art. New York Times, p. A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Marquis and Tans 2008; Smaglik 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Marquis and Tans 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Gur et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleElectronic Markets
ISSN (print)1019-6781
ISSN (online)1422-8890
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Management of Technology and Innovation
Computer Science Applications
Economics and Econometrics

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