How to format your references using the Clinical Queries: Nephrology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Queries: Nephrology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Spurgeon D. Drawing back the talent: Canada. Nature. 2002;415(6873):4-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Perakis SS, Hedin LO. Nitrogen loss from unpolluted South American forests mainly via dissolved organic compounds. Nature. 2002;415(6870):416-419.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lutzoni F, Pagel M, Reeb V. Major fungal lineages are derived from lichen symbiotic ancestors. Nature. 2001;411(6840):937-940.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Klein EM, Smith DK, Williams CM, Schouten H. Counter-rotating microplates at the Galapagos triple junction. Nature. 2005;433(7028):855-858.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yao Y, Liu S. Ultrasonic Technology for Desiccant Regeneration. John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Fey G. Robustness and Usability in Modern Design Flows. (Drechsler R, ed.). Springer Netherlands; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Bouleau N, Denis L. Construction of the Dirichlet Structure on the Upper Space. In: Denis L, ed. Dirichlet Forms Methods for Poisson Point Measures and Lévy Processes: With Emphasis on the Creation-Annihilation Techniques. Probability Theory and Stochastic Modelling. Springer International Publishing; 2015:41-81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Queries: Nephrology.

Blog post
Taub B. Cannibal Squid Spotted Tearing Each Other To Pieces In California. IFLScience. Published August 24, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Schools and Libraries Corporation: Actions Needed to Strengthen Program Integrity Operations Before Committing Funds. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lee M. Utilizing the Index of Learning Styles (ILS) in a Technology-Based Publishing Program. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J. And the Emmy Goes to Politics. New York Times. September 18, 2017:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Queries: Nephrology
ISSN (print)2211-9477

Other styles