How to format your references using the Clinical Queries: Nephrology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Queries: Nephrology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Roll-Mecak A. Botany. Shining light at microtubule crossroads. Science. 2013;342(6163):1180-1181.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hewitt SC, Korach KS. Cell biology. A hand to support the implantation window. Science. 2011;331(6019):863-864.
A journal article with 3 authors
Molnar P, Houseman GA, England PC. Earth science: palaeo-altimetry of Tibet. Nature. 2006;444(7117):E4; discussion E4-5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Caron JB, Scheltema A, Schander C, Rudkin D. A soft-bodied mollusc with radula from the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale. Nature. 2006;442(7099):159-163.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kim DM. Introductory Quantum Mechanics for Applied Nanotechnology. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2015.
An edited book
Wintour EM, Owens JA, eds. Early Life Origins of Health and Disease. Vol 573. Springer US; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Daim TU, Honnappa L, Murthy M, Rusnac C, Pornsatit C. Technological Assessment of Emerging Technologies in Conversion of Municipal Solid Waste to Energy. In: Daim TU, Kim J, Iskin I, Abu Taha R, van Blommestein KC, eds. Policies and Programs for Sustainable Energy Innovations: Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency. Innovation, Technology, and Knowledge Management. Springer International Publishing; 2015:83-105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Queries: Nephrology.

Blog post
Fang J. Greenhouse Gas Levels Reached Record High Last Year. IFLScience. Published September 10, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Defaulted Student Loans: Preliminary Analysis of Student Loan Borrowers and Defaulters. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Goodwin RH. Case Study of the Voluntary Student Transfer Program: The Perspectives of African American Students and Parent Participants in One Midwestern School District. Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich JR. Gods Get Ready for a New Holiday. New York Times. June 19, 2017:C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Queries: Nephrology
ISSN (print)2211-9477

Other styles