How to format your references using the Electric Power Systems Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Electric Power Systems Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Hameed, Science and religion. Bracing for Islamic creationism, Science. 322 (2008) 1637–1638.
A journal article with 2 authors
J.N. Dynek, S. Smith, Resolution of sister telomere association is required for progression through mitosis, Science. 304 (2004) 97–100.
A journal article with 3 authors
B. Barwick, D.J. Flannigan, A.H. Zewail, Photon-induced near-field electron microscopy, Nature. 462 (2009) 902–906.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
E.-M. Ha, C.-T. Oh, Y.S. Bae, W.-J. Lee, A direct role for dual oxidase in Drosophila gut immunity, Science. 310 (2005) 847–850.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
C.A. Windom Sr., H. Gaidhani, A. Fontana, Virtualizing, Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA, 2010.
An edited book
S. Barth, D. Murphy-Bokern, O. Kalinina, G. Taylor, M. Jones, eds., Perennial Biomass Crops for a Resource-Constrained World, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
C. Masala, Political Environment as a Factor of Risk, in: M. Essig, M. Hülsmann, E.-M. Kern, S. Klein-Schmeink (Eds.), Supply Chain Safety Management: Security and Robustness in Logistics, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013: pp. 101–108.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Electric Power Systems Research.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Meet the World’s Grumpiest Frog, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, U.S.-Japan Cooperative Development: Progress on FS-X Program Enhances Japanese Aerospace Capabilities, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K.J. Bentley, Modern Public Market to Revitalize a Small Community, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Bulkeley, Data-Mining Our Dreams, New York Times. (2013) SR14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleElectric Power Systems Research
AbbreviationElectric Power Syst. Res.
ISSN (print)0378-7796
ScopeEnergy Engineering and Power Technology
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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