How to format your references using the Electric Power Systems Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Electric Power Systems Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.A. Fuhrman, Microbial community structure and its functional implications, Nature. 459 (2009) 193–199.
A journal article with 2 authors
W. Martin, E.V. Koonin, Introns and the origin of nucleus-cytosol compartmentalization, Nature. 440 (2006) 41–45.
A journal article with 3 authors
T.R. Prytkova, I.V. Kurnikov, D.N. Beratan, Coupling coherence distinguishes structure sensitivity in protein electron transfer, Science. 315 (2007) 622–625.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
G.D. Fuchs, V.V. Dobrovitski, D.M. Toyli, F.J. Heremans, D.D. Awschalom, Gigahertz dynamics of a strongly driven single quantum spin, Science. 326 (2009) 1520–1522.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D. Dujmović, B. Androić, I. Lukačević, Composite Structures According to Eurocode 4, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, D-69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2014.
An edited book
B.M. Brown, J. Lang, I.G. Wood, eds., Spectral Theory, Function Spaces and Inequalities: New Techniques and Recent Trends, Springer, Basel, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
N. Rosenblum, Rethinking the French Liberal Moment: Some Thoughts on the Heterogeneous Origins of Lefort and Gauchet’s Social Philosophy, in: S.W. Sawyer, I. Stewart (Eds.), In Search of the Liberal Moment: Democracy, Anti-Totalitarianism, and Intellectual Politics in France since 1950, Palgrave Macmillan US, New York, NY, 2016: pp. 61–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Electric Power Systems Research.

Blog post
E. Andrew, ‘Salmon Cannon’ Allows Safe Migration Around Hydroelectric Dams, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Sports Arena, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D. Garyan, Converging origins: Never forget what happened in the future, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Brantley, Marginalized Souls, Magnified, New York Times. (2017) C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleElectric Power Systems Research
AbbreviationElectric Power Syst. Res.
ISSN (print)0378-7796
ScopeEnergy Engineering and Power Technology
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Other styles