How to format your references using the EJNMMI Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for EJNMMI Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Carroll SB. Evolution. How great wings can look alike. Science. 2011;333:1100–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Cummings CA, Relman DA. Genomics and microbiology. Microbial forensics--"cross-examining pathogens". Science. 2002;296:1976–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Miake J, Marbán E, Nuss HB. Biological pacemaker created by gene transfer. Nature. 2002;419:132–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Hannon JB, Hibino H, Bartelt NC, Swartzentruber BS, Ogino T, Kellogg GL. Dynamics of the silicon (111) surface phase transition. Nature. 2000;405:552–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Beckers B, Beckers P. Reconciliation of Geometry and Perception in Radiation Physics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
1. Balian EV, Lévêque C, Segers H, Martens K, editors. Freshwater Animal Diversity Assessment. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Karray H, Ellouze M, Alimi A. Indexing Video Summaries for Quick Video Browsing. In: Hassanien A-E, Abawajy JH, Abraham A, Hagras H, editors. Pervasive Computing: Innovations in Intelligent Multimedia and Applications. London: Springer; 2010. p. 77–95.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for EJNMMI Research.

Blog post
1. Andrews R. Charon’s Cracks Formed During Ancient Near-Misses With Other Worlds [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Bridge Infrastructure: Matching the Resources to the Need. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991 Jul. Report No.: RCED-91-167.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Hintz L. Fighting for Us, Inside and Out: National Identity Contestation and Foreign Policy in Turkey [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Shpigel B. From Hockey 101 to a Ph.D. New York Times. 2017 May 22;D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEJNMMI Research
AbbreviationEJNMMI Res.
ISSN (online)2191-219X
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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