How to format your references using the Egyptian Journal of Ear, Nose, Throat and Allied Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Egyptian Journal of Ear, Nose, Throat and Allied Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Ashwell M. Elsie Widdowson (1906-2000). Nature. 2000;406(6798):844.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Li Y, Sun Q. The superior catalytic CO oxidation capacity of a Cr-phthalocyanine porous sheet. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4098.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Xie XS, Yu J, Yang WY. Living cells as test tubes. Science. 2006;312(5771):228-230.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Huang J, Li C, Wang W-Q, Shen H-W, Li G, Cheng X-Q. Temporal scaling in information propagation. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5334.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Möller G. Geotechnik. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2013.
An edited book
1.
Kaski P. Classification Algorithms for Codes and Designs. Vol 15. (Östergård PRJ, ed.). Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Chacón Rebollo T, Lewandowski R. The $$k-\varepsilon$$ Model. In: Lewandowski R, ed. Mathematical and Numerical Foundations of Turbulence Models and Applications. Modeling and Simulation in Science, Engineering and Technology. Springer; 2014:83-114.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Egyptian Journal of Ear, Nose, Throat and Allied Sciences.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Stem Cell Discovery Could Lead To Treatments For Various Blood And Immune Disorders. IFLScience. Published August 14, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/stem-cell-discovery-could-lead-treatments-various-blood-and-immune-disorders/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Technology Transfers: Benefits of Cooperative R&D Agreements. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Tuschall A. Exploration of the Relationship Between Implicit Theory of Intelligence and Employability. Published online 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Kishkovsky S. Russian Takes Critical Tone On Economy. New York Times. June 8, 2008:A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.