How to format your references using the Egyptian Journal of Ear, Nose, Throat and Allied Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Egyptian Journal of Ear, Nose, Throat and Allied Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sanderson K. Lignocellulose: A chewy problem. Nature. 2011;474(7352):S12-4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Toffelmier DA, Tyburczy JA. Electromagnetic detection of a 410-km-deep melt layer in the southwestern United States. Nature. 2007;447(7147):991-994.
A journal article with 3 authors
Karlson RH, Cornell HV, Hughes TP. Coral communities are regionally enriched along an oceanic biodiversity gradient. Nature. 2004;429(6994):867-870.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Carette JE, Raaben M, Wong AC, et al. Ebola virus entry requires the cholesterol transporter Niemann-Pick C1. Nature. 2011;477(7364):340-343.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Harte L. Reading the Contemporary Irish Novel 1987-2007. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Minev BR, ed. Cancer Management in Man: Chemotherapy, Biological Therapy, Hyperthermia and Supporting Measures. Vol 13. Springer Netherlands; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Böttcher A, Widom H. From Toeplitz Eigenvalues through Green’s Kernels to Higher-order Wirtinger-Sobolev Inequalities. In: Dritschel MA, ed. The Extended Field of Operator Theory. Operator Theory: Advances and Applications. Birkhäuser; 2007:73-87.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Egyptian Journal of Ear, Nose, Throat and Allied Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew E. Yellowstone Earthquakes Reveal A Volcanic System Six Times Bigger Than We Thought. IFLScience. Published April 27, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transportation Security: DHS Should Address Key Challenges before Implementing the Transportation Worker Identification Credential Program. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Campbell AJ. History Transformed: Sengoku Daimyo in Japanese Popular Media. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron J. End of an Era Looms as Waldorf Astoria Prepares to Close for Renovations. New York Times. February 24, 2017:A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleEgyptian Journal of Ear, Nose, Throat and Allied Sciences
ISSN (print)2090-0740

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