How to format your references using the Egyptian Journal of Ear, Nose, Throat and Allied Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Egyptian Journal of Ear, Nose, Throat and Allied Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fortey RA. Evolution: retrospective. Stephen Jay Gould (1941-2002). Science. 2002;296(5575):1984.
A journal article with 2 authors
Phillips GN, Evans KA. Role of CO2 in the formation of gold deposits. Nature. 2004;429(6994):860-863.
A journal article with 3 authors
Molnar P, Houseman GA, England PC. Earth science: palaeo-altimetry of Tibet. Nature. 2006;444(7117):E4; discussion E4-5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kim DY, Lai TH, Lee JW, Manders JR, So F. Multi-spectral imaging with infrared sensitive organic light emitting diode. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5946.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hao L, Lawrence J. Laser Surface Treatment of Bio-Implant Materials. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
Gao Y, Lu H, Seki S, Yu S, eds. Developments in Language Theory: 14th International Conference, DLT 2010, London, ON, Canada, August 17-20, 2010. Proceedings. Vol 6224. Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Ashraf S, Zuhaib M. Fungal Biodiversity: A Potential Tool in Plant Disease Management. In: Malik A, Grohmann E, Alves M, eds. Management of Microbial Resources in the Environment. Springer Netherlands; 2013:69-90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Egyptian Journal of Ear, Nose, Throat and Allied Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew E. Artificial Recreation Of Happy Memories May Become The Next Big Weapon Against Depression. IFLScience. Published June 18, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Review of a Contract for Mobile Radio Sets for the Army. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gonzales DS. Identifying Factors and Quantifying Their Impact on Transportation Costs of Pre-Processes Biomass. Doctoral dissertation. Mississippi State University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly K. A Month With Mom In Eire; A Month With Mom in Ireland. New York Times. May 11, 1975:Travel And ResortsXX1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleEgyptian Journal of Ear, Nose, Throat and Allied Sciences
ISSN (print)2090-0740

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