How to format your references using the Educational Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Educational Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Manning, Craig E. 2011. “Geochemistry. Sulfur Surprises in Deep Geological Fluids.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 331 (6020): 1018–1019.
A journal article with 2 authors
Burghardt, Thomas P., and Katalin Ajtai. 2012. “Cell Biology. Heart Brakes.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 337 (6099): 1182–1183.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang, P. C., A. M. Keleshian, and F. Sachs. 2001. “Voltage-Induced Membrane Movement.” Nature 413 (6854): 428–432.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Wang, Yugang, Yusong R. Guo, Ke Liu, Zheng Yin, Rui Liu, Yan Xia, Lin Tan, et al. 2017. “KAT2A Coupled with the α-KGDH Complex Acts as a Histone H3 Succinyltransferase.” Nature 552 (7684): 273–277.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Köhler, Anna, and Heinz Bässler. 2015. Electronic Processes in Organic Semiconductors. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
MacFarland, Thomas W. 2016. Introduction to Nonparametric Statistics for the Biological Sciences Using R. Edited by Jan M. Yates. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Hunt, James E., Russell B. Wynn, and Ian W. Croudace. 2015. “Identification, Correlation and Origin of Multistage Landslide Events in Volcaniclastic Turbidites in the Moroccan Turbidite System.” In Micro-XRF Studies of Sediment Cores: Applications of a Non-Destructive Tool for the Environmental Sciences, edited by Ian W. Croudace and R. Guy Rothwell, 147–172. Developments in Paleoenvironmental Research. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Educational Research.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2016. “‘Smart Sex Toy’ Company Accused Of Collecting Intimate Data.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1993. Tax Systems Modernization: Comments on IRS’ Portion of President’s Request for Fiscal Year 1993 Supplemental Funds. T-IMTEC-93-1. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moore, Jamie. 2012. “Recall after Conscious Sedation for Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Procedures and Its Effect on Patient Satisfaction.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland, John. 2017. “At a Village Voice Reunion, They Laughed. They Cried. They Groused.” New York Times, September 10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Manning 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Manning 2011; Burghardt and Ajtai 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Burghardt and Ajtai 2012)
  • Three authors: (Zhang, Keleshian, and Sachs 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Wang et al. 2017)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducational Research
AbbreviationEduc. Res. (Windsor)
ISSN (print)0013-1881
ISSN (online)1469-5847

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