How to format your references using the Educational Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Educational Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bignami, Giovanni F. 2002. “Astronomy. Gamma-Ray Astronomy with INTEGRAL.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 298 (5598): 1560–1561.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wibberley, Christopher A. J., and Toshihiko Shimamoto. 2005. “Earthquake Slip Weakening and Asperities Explained by Thermal Pressurization.” Nature 436 (7051): 689–692.
A journal article with 3 authors
West, G. B., J. H. Brown, and B. J. Enquist. 2001. “A General Model for Ontogenetic Growth.” Nature 413 (6856): 628–631.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Zubieta, Jon-Kar, Mary M. Heitzeg, Yolanda R. Smith, Joshua A. Bueller, Ke Xu, Yanjun Xu, Robert A. Koeppe, Christian S. Stohler, and David Goldman. 2003. “COMT Val158met Genotype Affects Mu-Opioid Neurotransmitter Responses to a Pain Stressor.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 299 (5610): 1240–1243.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bagdonavičius, Vilijandas, Kruopis Julius, and Mikhail S. Nikulin. 2011. Non-Parametric Tests for Complete Data. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Schewe, Klaus-Dieter, and Bernhard Thalheim, eds. 2011. Semantics in Data and Knowledge Bases: 4th International Workshops, SDKB 2010, Bordeaux, France, July 5, 2010, Revised Selected Papers. Vol. 6834. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Chimphango, Samson B. M., Alphonsus Belane, Jesse B. Naab, Paul B. Tanzubil, Joseph A. N. Asiwe, Patrick A. Ndakidemi, Riekert P. D. van Heerden, and Felix D. Dakora. 2008. “Multi-Factor Approach to Identifying Cowpea Genotypes with Superior Symbiotic Traits and Higher Yield for Africa.” In Biological Nitrogen Fixation: Towards Poverty Alleviation through Sustainable Agriculture: Proceedings of the 15th International Nitrogen Fixation Congress and the 12th International Conference of the African Association for Biological Nitrogen Fixation, edited by Felix D. Dakora, Samson B. M. Chimphango, Alex J. Valentine, Claudine Elmerich, and William E. Newton, 23–24. Current Plant Science and Biotechnology in Agriculture. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Educational Research.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2016. “New Species Of Pitviper Discovered After A Century Of Misidentification.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. Reported Y2K Status of the 21 Largest U.S. Cities. AIMD-99-246R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tsai, Hsin-Yue. 2006. “Elucidating the Role of Protein Cofactors in RNA Catalysis Using Ribonuclease P as the Model System.” Doctoral dissertation, Columbus, OH: Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly, Erin. 1994. “CHILDREN’S BOOKS.” New York Times, September 25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bignami 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Bignami 2002; Wibberley and Shimamoto 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wibberley and Shimamoto 2005)
  • Three authors: (West, Brown, and Enquist 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Zubieta et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducational Research
AbbreviationEduc. Res. (Windsor)
ISSN (print)0013-1881
ISSN (online)1469-5847

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