How to format your references using the Educational Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Educational Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ward-Thompson, Derek. 2002. “Isolated Star Formation: From Cloud Formation to Core Collapse.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 295 (5552): 76–81.
A journal article with 2 authors
Peers, Graham, and Neil M. Price. 2006. “Copper-Containing Plastocyanin Used for Electron Transport by an Oceanic Diatom.” Nature 441 (7091): 341–344.
A journal article with 3 authors
Booker, John R., Alicia Favetto, and M. Cristina Pomposiello. 2004. “Low Electrical Resistivity Associated with Plunging of the Nazca Flat Slab beneath Argentina.” Nature 429 (6990): 399–403.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Metodiev, Metodi V., Dina Matheos, Mark D. Rose, and David E. Stone. 2002. “Regulation of MAPK Function by Direct Interaction with the Mating-Specific Galpha in Yeast.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 296 (5572): 1483–1486.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rodda, Harvey J. E., and Max A. Little. 2015. Understanding Mathematical and Statistical Techniques in Hydrology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Wong, C. P., Kyoung-Sik Moon, and Yi (grace) Li, eds. 2010. Nano-Bio- Electronic, Photonic and MEMS Packaging. 1st ed. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Rijken, Conny, and Renée Römkens. 2011. “Trafficking for Sexual Purposes as a Globalized Shadow Economy: Human Security as the Tool to Facilitate a Human Rights Based Approach.” In The New Faces of Victimhood: Globalization, Transnational Crimes and Victim Rights, edited by Rianne Letschert and Jan van Dijk, 73–98. Studies in Global Justice. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Educational Research.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2015. “The Dark Truth About Adélie Penguins Was Kept Secret For More Than A Hundred Years.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2003. Technology Transfer: Agencies’ Rights to Federally Sponsored Biomedical Inventions. GAO-03-536. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Adams, Charles Andrew. 2013. “Impact of Water Management and Agronomic Practices on the Performance of Insecticide Seed Treatments against Rice Water Weevil, Lissorhoptrus Oryzophilus Kuschel, in Mississippi Rice.” Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State, MS: Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, Sophia. 2008. “Honor a Literary Giant, But Be Careful Where.” New York Times, September 26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ward-Thompson 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Ward-Thompson 2002; Peers and Price 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Peers and Price 2006)
  • Three authors: (Booker, Favetto, and Pomposiello 2004)
  • 4 or more authors: (Metodiev et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducational Research
AbbreviationEduc. Res. (Windsor)
ISSN (print)0013-1881
ISSN (online)1469-5847

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