How to format your references using the Educational Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Educational Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lyon, Bruce E. 2003. “Egg Recognition and Counting Reduce Costs of Avian Conspecific Brood Parasitism.” Nature 422 (6931): 495–499.
A journal article with 2 authors
Droser, Mary L., and James G. Gehling. 2008. “Synchronous Aggregate Growth in an Abundant New Ediacaran Tubular Organism.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 319 (5870): 1660–1662.
A journal article with 3 authors
Suzuki, Toru, Maki Asami, and Anthony C. F. Perry. 2014. “Asymmetric Parental Genome Engineering by Cas9 during Mouse Meiotic Exit.” Scientific Reports 4 (December): 7621.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Pufall, Miles A., Gregory M. Lee, Mary L. Nelson, Hyun-Seo Kang, Algirdas Velyvis, Lewis E. Kay, Lawrence P. McIntosh, and Barbara J. Graves. 2005. “Variable Control of Ets-1 DNA Binding by Multiple Phosphates in an Unstructured Region.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 309 (5731): 142–145.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wolbarst, Anthony B., Patrizio Capasso, and Andrew R. Wyant. 2013. Medical Imaging. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Izmailov, Alexey F. 2014. Newton-Type Methods for Optimization and Variational Problems. Edited by Mikhail V. Solodov. Springer Series in Operations Research and Financial Engineering. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Imberti, Lanfranco, and Tullio Tolio. 2005. “Manufacturability Models for Manufacturing E-Marketplaces.” In Designing and Evaluating Value Added Services in Manufacturing E-Market Places, edited by G. Perrone, M. Bruccoleri, and P. Renna, 67–95. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Educational Research.

Blog post
Hamilton, Kristy. 2015. “Meet The Three-Foot-Long Worms That Mate In Your Abdomen.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1997. Surface Transportation: Prospects for Innovation Through Research, Intelligent Transportation Systems, State Infrastructure Banks, and Design-Build Contracting. T-RCED-97-83. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zinda, Elizabeth Selena. 2017. “American Cerberus: Pit Bulls and Psyche in the United States.” Doctoral dissertation, Carpinteria, CA: Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, Mary. 2013. “Wanted: Snow. Cold.” New York Times, February 6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lyon 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Lyon 2003; Droser and Gehling 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Droser and Gehling 2008)
  • Three authors: (Suzuki, Asami, and Perry 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Pufall et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducational Research
AbbreviationEduc. Res. (Windsor)
ISSN (print)0013-1881
ISSN (online)1469-5847

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