How to format your references using the Educational Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Educational Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jungmann, Klaus P. 2015. “Particle Physics: Matter and Antimatter Scrutinized.” Nature 524 (7564): 168–169.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kind, Rainer, and Xiaohui Yuan. 2010. “Geophysics. Seismic Images of the Biggest Crash on Earth.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 329 (5998): 1479–1480.
A journal article with 3 authors
Goldreich, Peter, Yoram Lithwick, and Re’em Sari. 2002. “Formation of Kuiper-Belt Binaries by Dynamical Friction and Three-Body Encounters.” Nature 420 (6916): 643–646.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Murakami, Motohiko, Kei Hirose, Katsuyuki Kawamura, Nagayoshi Sata, and Yasuo Ohishi. 2004. “Post-Perovskite Phase Transition in MgSiO3.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 304 (5672): 855–858.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jäger, Wolfram, and Gero Marzahn. 2010. Mauerwerk. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Disalvo, E. Anibal, ed. 2015. Membrane Hydration: The Role of Water in the Structure and Function of Biological Membranes. Vol. 71. Subcellular Biochemistry. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Alam, M. Daud, and Uwe F. Gühl. 2016. “Outlook.” In Project-Management in Practice: A Guideline and Toolbox for Successful Projects, edited by Uwe F. Gühl, 123–125. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Educational Research.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “How To Memorise An Entire Foreign Dictionary (And Become A Scrabble World Champion).” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. Domestic Aviation: Service Problems and Limited Competition Continue in Some Markets. T-RCED-98-176. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Parker, Jason Shaw. 2006. “Land Tenure in the Sugar Creek Watershed: A Contextual Analysis of Land Tenure and Social Networks, Intergenerational Farm Succession, and Conservation Use Among Farmers of Wayne County, Ohio.” Doctoral dissertation, Columbus, OH: Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, Mary J. O. 2015. “Weekend Entertainments From the Archives of The New York Times.” New York Times, June 12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jungmann 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Jungmann 2015; Kind and Yuan 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kind and Yuan 2010)
  • Three authors: (Goldreich, Lithwick, and Sari 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Murakami et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducational Research
AbbreviationEduc. Res. (Windsor)
ISSN (print)0013-1881
ISSN (online)1469-5847

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