How to format your references using the Educational Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Educational Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Adami, Christoph. 2006. “Computer Science. What Do Robots Dream Of?” Science (New York, N.Y.) 314 (5802): 1093–1094.
A journal article with 2 authors
Suster, Maximiliano L., and Michael Bate. 2002. “Embryonic Assembly of a Central Pattern Generator without Sensory Input.” Nature 416 (6877): 174–178.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen, Li M., Robert M. Friedman, and Anna W. Roe. 2003. “Optical Imaging of a Tactile Illusion in Area 3b of the Primary Somatosensory Cortex.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 302 (5646): 881–885.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Hennigs, Jan K., Hans Jörg Baumann, Nicole Lüneburg, Gesine Quast, Lars Harbaum, Jan Heyckendorf, Karsten Sydow, Bernhard Schulte-Hubbert, Michael Halank, and Hans Klose. 2014. “Fibrinogen Plasma Concentration Is an Independent Marker of Haemodynamic Impairment in Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension.” Scientific Reports 4 (April): 4808.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Siddiqi, Naeem. 2017. Intelligent Credit Scoring. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Mason, John W., ed. 2008. Exoplanets: Detection, Formation, Properties, Habitability. Springer Praxis Books. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Dörfler, Peter, Mirjam Sick, and André Coutu. 2013. “High-Frequency Vortex Phenomena.” In Flow-Induced Pulsation and Vibration in Hydroelectric Machinery: Engineer’s Guidebook for Planning, Design and Troubleshooting, edited by Mirjam Sick and André Coutu, 111–127. London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Educational Research.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle. 2016. “Dusty Plasma In The Universe And In The Laboratory.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2001. Federal Research and Development: Contributions to and Results of the Small Business Technology Transfer Program. GAO-01-867T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cappiello, Diana Marie. 2010. “Minding the Gap: Western Export Controls and Soviet Technology Policy during the 1960s.” Doctoral dissertation, College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum, Michael M. 2017. “Right-Wing Provocateur Is Given More Fodder for His Conspiracies.” New York Times, October 9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Adami 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Adami 2006; Suster and Bate 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Suster and Bate 2002)
  • Three authors: (Chen, Friedman, and Roe 2003)
  • 4 or more authors: (Hennigs et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducational Research
AbbreviationEduc. Res. (Windsor)
ISSN (print)0013-1881
ISSN (online)1469-5847

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