How to format your references using the Educational Research and Evaluation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Educational Research and Evaluation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2000). US industry starts to think big by acting small. Nature, 408(6812), 621–622.
A journal article with 2 authors
Solanki, S. K., & Krivova, N. A. (2011). Astronomy. Analyzing solar cycles. Science (New York, N.Y.), 334(6058), 916–917.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gregoire, L. J., Payne, A. J., & Valdes, P. J. (2012). Deglacial rapid sea level rises caused by ice-sheet saddle collapses. Nature, 487(7406), 219–222.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Traggiai, E., Chicha, L., Mazzucchelli, L., Bronz, L., Piffaretti, J.-C., Lanzavecchia, A., & Manz, M. G. (2004). Development of a human adaptive immune system in cord blood cell-transplanted mice. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5667), 104–107.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kumacheva, E., & Garstecki, P. (2011). Microfluidic Reactors for Polymer Particles. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Venkataraman, H., & Muntean, G.-M. (Eds.). (2012). Cognitive Radio and its Application for Next Generation Cellular and Wireless Networks (Vol. 116). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Moemeka, E., & Moemeka, E. (2015). Layout and Custom Controls. In E. Moemeka (Ed.), Real World Windows 10 Development (pp. 135–178). Apress.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Educational Research and Evaluation.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, October 7). Mushrooms Could Extend Battery Life. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2007). Higher Education: Tuition Continues to Rise, but Patterns Vary by Institution Type, Enrollment, and Educational Expenditures (GAO-08-245). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Desai, S. S. (2013). CFD simuation of flow past a rotating circular cylinder with an end plate [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Detrick, B. (2017, September 6). Where Nobody Knows Your Name. New York Times, D13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik, 2000; Solanki & Krivova, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Solanki & Krivova, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Gregoire et al., 2012)
  • 6 or more authors: (Traggiai et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducational Research and Evaluation
AbbreviationEduc. Res. Eval.
ISSN (print)1380-3611
ISSN (online)1744-4187

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