How to format your references using the Educational Research and Evaluation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Educational Research and Evaluation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Koenig, R. (2000). HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS: Bulgarians Sue CERN for Leniency. Science (New York, N.Y.), 290(5490), 252.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vecchi, G. A., & Soden, B. J. (2007). Effect of remote sea surface temperature change on tropical cyclone potential intensity. Nature, 450(7172), 1066–1070.
A journal article with 3 authors
de Jong, P. W., van Lenteren, J. C., & Raak-van den Berg, C. L. (2013). Comment on “Invasive harlequin ladybird carries biological weapons against native competitors.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 341(6152), 1342.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Mizutani, K.-I., Yoon, K., Dang, L., Tokunaga, A., & Gaiano, N. (2007). Differential Notch signalling distinguishes neural stem cells from intermediate progenitors. Nature, 449(7160), 351–355.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nathanail, C. P., & Bardos, R. P. (2005). Reclamation of Contaminated Land. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Schanz, T. (Ed.). (2007). Theoretical and Numerical Unsaturated Soil Mechanics (Vol. 113). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bauer, F. L. (2011). Use of Continued Fractions and Algorithms Related to Them. In A. Ghizzetti (Ed.), Alcune questioni di analisi numerica (pp. 352–419). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Educational Research and Evaluation.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 17). Australia’s ‘Other’ Reef Is Worth More Than $10 Billion A Year - But Have You Heard Of It? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Airport Financing: Comparing Funding Sources With Planned Development (T-RCED-98-129). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wood, R. D. (2010). Correlation of conductor leadership style, musician employment status, organizational participation to orchestra musician job satisfaction [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G. G. (2017, March 26). Adventures in Comics and the Real World. New York Times, C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Koenig, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Koenig, 2000; Vecchi & Soden, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vecchi & Soden, 2007)
  • Three authors: (de Jong et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Mizutani et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducational Research and Evaluation
AbbreviationEduc. Res. Eval.
ISSN (print)1380-3611
ISSN (online)1744-4187

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