How to format your references using the Educational Research and Evaluation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Educational Research and Evaluation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fitch, T. (2010). Journal club. A cognitive biologist foresees breakthroughs in understanding vocal learning. Nature, 466(7303), 163.
A journal article with 2 authors
Phillips, P., & Dalidovich, D. (2003). The elusive Bose metal. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5643), 243–247.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mitrovica, J. X., Gomez, N., & Clark, P. U. (2009). The sea-level fingerprint of West Antarctic collapse. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5915), 753.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lorenz, K. T., Chandler, D. W., Barr, J. W., Chen, W., Barnes, G. L., & Cline, J. I. (2001). Direct measurement of the preferred sense of NO rotation after collision with argon. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5537), 2063–2066.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jensen, R. C. (2012). Risk-Reduction Methods for Occupational Safety and Health. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Florack, L., Duits, R., Jongbloed, G., Lieshout, M.-C. van, & Davies, L. (Eds.). (2012). Mathematical Methods for Signal and Image Analysis and Representation (Vol. 41). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Rosenwaks, Y., Elias, G., Strassbourg, E., Schwarzman, A., & Boag, A. (2012). The Effect of the Measuring Tip and Image Reconstruction. In S. Sadewasser & T. Glatzel (Eds.), Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy: Measuring and Compensating Electrostatic Forces (pp. 45–67). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Educational Research and Evaluation.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, March 6). Legal Highs – A Look At The Growing Use Of Synthetic Drugs. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2005). Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites: Technical Problems, Cost Increases, and Schedule Delays Trigger Need for Difficult Trade-off Decisions (GAO-06-249T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Backfish, M. (2013). Electron Cloud in Steel Beam Pipe vs Titanium Nitride Coated and Amorphous Carbon Coated Beam Pipes in Fermilab’s Main Injector [Doctoral dissertation]. Indiana University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Aikins, M. (2016, May 17). Reading the Wreckage. New York Times, MM37.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fitch, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Fitch, 2010; Phillips & Dalidovich, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Phillips & Dalidovich, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Mitrovica et al., 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Lorenz et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducational Research and Evaluation
AbbreviationEduc. Res. Eval.
ISSN (print)1380-3611
ISSN (online)1744-4187

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