How to format your references using the Educational Research and Evaluation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Educational Research and Evaluation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pollard, T. D. (2001). Genomics, the cytoskeleton and motility. Nature, 409(6822), 842–843.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hofmann, H. A., & Stevenson, P. A. (2000). Flight restores fight in crickets. Nature, 403(6770), 613.
A journal article with 3 authors
Corcoran, A. J., Barber, J. R., & Conner, W. E. (2009). Tiger moth jams bat sonar. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5938), 325–327.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Itoh, H., Takahashi, A., Adachi, K., Noji, H., Yasuda, R., Yoshida, M., & Kinosita, K. (2004). Mechanically driven ATP synthesis by F1-ATPase. Nature, 427(6973), 465–468.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Reid, R., Fraser-King, G., & Schwaderer, W. D. (2006). Data Lifecycles. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Rieber, R. W. (Ed.). (2012). Encyclopedia of the History of Psychological Theories. Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Cavalieri, F. J., Brüls, O., & Cardona, A. (2014). A Mortar Method Combined with an Augmented Lagrangian Approach for Treatment of Mechanical Contact Problems. In Z. Terze (Ed.), Multibody Dynamics: Computational Methods and Applications (pp. 69–91). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Educational Research and Evaluation.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, May 28). We’ve Only Monitored A Fraction Of The Barrier Reef’s Species. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2004). Computer-Based Patient Records: VA and DOD Efforts to Exchange Health Data Could Benefit from Improved Planning and Project Management (GAO-04-687). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hatton, H. (2013). How Rural Elementary Building Principals Conceptualize the Programs in Their Schools, the Processes of Connecting Students to Programs, and Their Leadership Role in Doing So [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2005, October 28). For Now, and Possibly This Year, Talk of a Vacancy on the Court Appears to Be Mere Talk. New York Times, A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pollard, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Hofmann & Stevenson, 2000; Pollard, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hofmann & Stevenson, 2000)
  • Three authors: (Corcoran et al., 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Itoh et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducational Research and Evaluation
AbbreviationEduc. Res. Eval.
ISSN (print)1380-3611
ISSN (online)1744-4187

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