How to format your references using the Educational Action Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Educational Action Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wald, Chelsea. 2015. “Neuroscience: The Aesthetic Brain.” Nature 526 (7572): S2-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Junttila, Melissa R., and Frederic J. de Sauvage. 2013. “Influence of Tumour Micro-Environment Heterogeneity on Therapeutic Response.” Nature 501 (7467): 346–354.
A journal article with 3 authors
Truog, Robert D., Aaron S. Kesselheim, and Steven Joffe. 2012. “Research Ethics. Paying Patients for Their Tissue: The Legacy of Henrietta Lacks.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 337 (6090): 37–38.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Qi, Jianhua, Tomoyo Asano, Masashi Jinno, Kouhei Matsui, Keisuke Atsumi, Youji Sakagami, and Makoto Ojika. 2005. “Characterization of a Phytophthora Mating Hormone.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 309 (5742): 1828.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
E. Sutherland, Peter. 2014. Principles of Electrical Safety. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
lisahunter. 2013. Participatory Activist Research in the Globalised World: Social Change Through the Cultural Professions. Edited by Elke Emerald and Gregory Martin. Vol. 26. Explorations of Educational Purpose. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Yeldan, A. Erinc. 2016. “Great Recession and Beyond: Revisiting the Pillars of Economic Thought.” In Contemporary Issues in Macroeconomics: Lessons from The Crisis and Beyond, edited by Joseph E. Stiglitz and Martin Guzman, 34–41. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Educational Action Research.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. 2015. “Hubble Snaps Picture Of Some Of The Earliest Known Galaxies.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2015. James Webb Space Telescope: Project on Track but May Benefit from Improved Contractor Data to Better Understand Costs. GAO-16-112. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Amos, Anthea E. 2010. “Perceptions of the Persistent: Academic Experiences of First Generation Community College Students.” Doctoral dissertation, Minneapolis, MN: Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, Kelly. 2010. “More Than Moussaka.” New York Times, November 28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wald 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Wald 2015; Junttila and de Sauvage 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Junttila and de Sauvage 2013)
  • Three authors: (Truog, Kesselheim, and Joffe 2012)
  • 4 or more authors: (Qi et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducational Action Research
AbbreviationEduc. Action Res.
ISSN (print)0965-0792
ISSN (online)1747-5074

Other styles