How to format your references using the Educational Action Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Educational Action Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Morton, O. 2000. “PARTICLE PHYSICS: The Final Tally Leaves LEP a Probable Loser.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 290 (5495): 1274a.
A journal article with 2 authors
Reyes, Nicolás, and David C. Gadsby. 2006. “Ion Permeation through the Na+,K+-ATPase.” Nature 443 (7110): 470–474.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chait, Remy, Allison Craney, and Roy Kishony. 2007. “Antibiotic Interactions That Select against Resistance.” Nature 446 (7136): 668–671.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kosfeld, Michael, Markus Heinrichs, Paul J. Zak, Urs Fischbacher, and Ernst Fehr. 2005. “Oxytocin Increases Trust in Humans.” Nature 435 (7042): 673–676.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Venkateshan, S. P. 2015. Mechanical Measurements. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Gelbukh, Alexander, ed. 2012. Computational Linguistics and Intelligent Text Processing: 13th International Conference, CICLing 2012, New Delhi, India, March 11-17, 2012, Proceedings, Part II. Vol. 7182. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Susperregi, Loreto, Basilio Sierra, Jose María Martínez-Otzeta, Elena Lazkano, and Ander Ansuategui. 2012. “A Layered Learning Approach to 3D Multimodal People Detection Using Low-Cost Sensors in a Mobile Robot.” In Ambient Intelligence - Software and Applications: 3rd International Symposium on Ambient Intelligence (ISAmI 2012), edited by Paulo Novais, Kasper Hallenborg, Dante I. Tapia, and Juan M. Corchado Rodríguez, 27–33. Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Educational Action Research.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2017. “What The Hell Is This Prehistoric-Looking Prawn Fish?” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1972. Improved Use of Cargo Space on Ammunition Ships by BetterPlanning. B-133025. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ogawa, Naoki. 2012. “A Man Walks into the World.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kovaleski, Serge F. 2017. “Jailed 10 Years, but Still Awaiting a Speedy Trial.” New York Times, September 19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Morton 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Morton 2000; Reyes and Gadsby 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Reyes and Gadsby 2006)
  • Three authors: (Chait, Craney, and Kishony 2007)
  • 4 or more authors: (Kosfeld et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducational Action Research
AbbreviationEduc. Action Res.
ISSN (print)0965-0792
ISSN (online)1747-5074

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