How to format your references using the Educational Action Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Educational Action Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grier, David G. 2003. “A Revolution in Optical Manipulation.” Nature 424 (6950): 810–816.
A journal article with 2 authors
Li, Guangyuan, and Jiasen Zhang. 2014. “Ultra-Broadband and Efficient Surface Plasmon Polariton Launching through Metallic Nanoslits of Subwavelength Period.” Scientific Reports 4 (August): 5914.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bandfield, Joshua L., Timothy D. Glotch, and Philip R. Christensen. 2003. “Spectroscopic Identification of Carbonate Minerals in the Martian Dust.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 301 (5636): 1084–1087.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Huang, Q., D. Liu, P. Majewski, L. C. Schulte, J. M. Korn, R. A. Young, E. S. Lander, and N. Hacohen. 2001. “The Plasticity of Dendritic Cell Responses to Pathogens and Their Components.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 294 (5543): 870–875.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Armaroli, Nicola, and Vincenzo Balzani. 2010. Energy for a Sustainable World. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Badica, Amelia, Bogdan Trawinski, and Ngoc Thanh Nguyen, eds. 2014. Recent Developments in Computational Collective Intelligence. Vol. 513. Studies in Computational Intelligence. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Moura Neto, Francisco Duarte, and Antônio José da Silva Neto. 2013. “Spectral Analysis of an Inverse Problem.” In An Introduction to Inverse Problems with Applications, edited by Antônio José da Silva Neto, 53–83. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Educational Action Research.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2016. “New Species Of Pitviper Discovered After A Century Of Misidentification.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1987. University Funding: Patterns of Distribution of Federal Research Funds to Universities. RCED-87-67BR. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cole, Kimberley W. 2010. “Principal Investigator and Department Administrator Perceptions of Services Provided by Offices of Research Administration at Research Universities.” Doctoral dissertation, Tampa, FL: University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum, Michael M. 2017. “3 CNN Journalists Quit After Story Is Pulled.” New York Times, June 27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Grier 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Grier 2003; Li and Zhang 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Li and Zhang 2014)
  • Three authors: (Bandfield, Glotch, and Christensen 2003)
  • 4 or more authors: (Huang et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducational Action Research
AbbreviationEduc. Action Res.
ISSN (print)0965-0792
ISSN (online)1747-5074

Other styles