How to format your references using the Educational Action Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Educational Action Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Funder, John W. 2011. “Medicine. The Genetics of Primary Aldosteronism.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 331 (6018): 685–686.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sosdian, Sindia, and Yair Rosenthal. 2009. “Deep-Sea Temperature and Ice Volume Changes across the Pliocene-Pleistocene Climate Transitions.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 325 (5938): 306–310.
A journal article with 3 authors
Connors, Martin, Paul Wiegert, and Christian Veillet. 2011. “Earth’s Trojan Asteroid.” Nature 475 (7357): 481–483.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Shpyrko, Oleg G., Reinhard Streitel, Venkatachalapathy S. K. Balagurusamy, Alexei Y. Grigoriev, Moshe Deutsch, Benjamin M. Ocko, Mati Meron, Binhua Lin, and Peter S. Pershan. 2006. “Surface Crystallization in a Liquid AuSi Alloy.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 313 (5783): 77–80.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Voldman, Steven H. 2006. ESD. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Rampertab, S. Devi, and Gerard E. Mullin, eds. 2014. Celiac Disease. Clinical Gastroenterology. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Beckwith, Francis J. 2011. “The Human Being, a Person of Substance: A Response to Dean Stretton.” In Persons, Moral Worth, and Embryos: A Critical Analysis of Pro-Choice Arguments, edited by Stephen Napier, 67–83. Philosophy and Medicine. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Educational Action Research.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “SpaceX Wins Permission To Launch Government Satellites.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1994. GSEs: Implications of Removing State and Local Tax Exemption. T-GGD-94-182. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Watterson, Tom. 2012. “Changes in Attitudes and Behaviors Toward Physical Activity, Nutrition, and Social Support for Middle School Students Using the AFIT App as a Supplement to Instruction in a Physical Education Class.” Doctoral dissertation, Tampa, FL: University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Protess, Ben, and Jessica Silver-Greenberg. 2016. “JPMorgan Said to Settle in Chinese Bribery Case.” New York Times, November 17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Funder 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Funder 2011; Sosdian and Rosenthal 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sosdian and Rosenthal 2009)
  • Three authors: (Connors, Wiegert, and Veillet 2011)
  • 4 or more authors: (Shpyrko et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducational Action Research
AbbreviationEduc. Action Res.
ISSN (print)0965-0792
ISSN (online)1747-5074

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