How to format your references using the Educational Action Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Educational Action Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Raymond, John C. 2009. “Astronomy. Cosmic-Ray Acceleration in Supernova Remnants.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 325 (5941): 683–684.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bekerman, Elena, and Shirit Einav. 2015. “Infectious Disease. Combating Emerging Viral Threats.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 348 (6232): 282–283.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nam, Koo Hyun, Il H. Park, and Seung Hwan Ko. 2012. “Patterning by Controlled Cracking.” Nature 485 (7397): 221–224.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Stone, Michael D., Mariana Mihalusova, Catherine M. O’connor, Ramadevi Prathapam, Kathleen Collins, and Xiaowei Zhuang. 2007. “Stepwise Protein-Mediated RNA Folding Directs Assembly of Telomerase Ribonucleoprotein.” Nature 446 (7134): 458–461.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wilmott, Paul, and David Orrell. 2017. The Money Formula. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Marinello, Francesco, Daniele Passeri, and Enrico Savio, eds. 2013. Acoustic Scanning Probe Microscopy. NanoScience and Technology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Casas, Jordi, Jaime L. Ferrer, David Garcia, Josep Perarnau, and Alex Torday. 2010. “Traffic Simulation with Aimsun.” In Fundamentals of Traffic Simulation, edited by Jaume Barceló, 173–232. International Series in Operations Research & Management Science. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Educational Action Research.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Regenerative Medicine Has Huge Potential But It Does Not Come Cheap.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2014. F-35 Joint Strike Fighter: Slower Than Expected Progress in Software Testing May Limit Initial Warfighting Capabilities. GAO-14-468T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Quackenbush, Cyndera M. 2010. “The Imaginal Stone: Stories of Self and World.” Doctoral dissertation, Carpinteria, CA: Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, Sophia. 2004. “Fabergé Eggs May Be Shown In City Where Czar Was Killed.” New York Times, February 6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Raymond 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Raymond 2009; Bekerman and Einav 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bekerman and Einav 2015)
  • Three authors: (Nam, Park, and Ko 2012)
  • 4 or more authors: (Stone et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducational Action Research
AbbreviationEduc. Action Res.
ISSN (print)0965-0792
ISSN (online)1747-5074

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