How to format your references using the Education Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Education Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bynum, William. 2012. “Nobel Success: What Makes a Great Lab?” Nature 490 (7418): 31–32.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sfeir, Agnel, and Titia de Lange. 2012. “Removal of Shelterin Reveals the Telomere End-Protection Problem.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 336 (6081): 593–597.
A journal article with 3 authors
Peelen, Marius V., Li Fei-Fei, and Sabine Kastner. 2009. “Neural Mechanisms of Rapid Natural Scene Categorization in Human Visual Cortex.” Nature 460 (7251): 94–97.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Gonzalez, Pablo Sierra, James O’Prey, Simone Cardaci, Valentin J. A. Barthet, Jun-Ichi Sakamaki, Florian Beaumatin, Antonia Roseweir, et al. 2018. “Mannose Impairs Tumour Growth and Enhances Chemotherapy.” Nature, November.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dunnivant, Frank M., and Elliot Anders. 2005. A Basic Introduction to Pollutant Fate and Transport. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Rzany, Berthold, and Mauricio de Maio, eds. 2006. Injectable Fillers in Aesthetic Medicine. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Emblem, Kyrre E., and Atle Bjornerud. 2011. “Glioma Grading Using Cerebral Blood Volume Heterogeneity.” In Tumors of the Central Nervous System, Volume 1: Gliomas: Glioblastoma (Part 1), edited by M. A. Hayat, 31–43. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Education Economics.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2013. “The Most Extreme Weather In the Solar System.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. Intercity Passenger Rail: Amtrak’s Progress in Improving Its Financial Condition Has Been Mixed. RCED-99-181. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pavuluri, Vamsi Krishna. 2014. “Field Oriented Control of Induction Motors Based on DSP Controller.” Doctoral dissertation, Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt, Linda F. 2008. “For Sabbath on Saturdays, Fewer Open Shops.” New York Times, March 9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bynum 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Bynum 2012; Sfeir and de Lange 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sfeir and de Lange 2012)
  • Three authors: (Peelen, Fei-Fei, and Kastner 2009)
  • 4 or more authors: (Gonzalez et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducation Economics
AbbreviationEduc. Econ.
ISSN (print)0964-5292
ISSN (online)1469-5782
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

Other styles