How to format your references using the Education Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Education Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Scharfman, Helen E. 2015. “Neuroscience. Metabolic Control of Epilepsy.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 347 (6228): 1312–1313.
A journal article with 2 authors
Williams, Wendy M., and Stephen J. Ceci. 2005. “Recruiters and Academia. Academics Worry about Hiring ‘Undiscovered Geniuses.’” Nature 435 (7041): 534.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cohen, Moshik, Reuven Shavit, and Zeev Zalevsky. 2014. “Observing Optical Plasmons on a Single Nanometer Scale.” Scientific Reports 4 (February): 4096.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Priestley, Rodney D., Christopher J. Ellison, Linda J. Broadbelt, and John M. Torkelson. 2005. “Structural Relaxation of Polymer Glasses at Surfaces, Interfaces, and in Between.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 309 (5733): 456–459.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Whitcomb, Clifford A., and Leslie E. Whitcomb. 2013. Effective Interpersonal and Team Communication Skills for Engineers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Jakushokas, Renatas. 2011. Power Distribution Networks with On-Chip Decoupling Capacitors. Edited by Mikhail Popovich, Andrey V. Mezhiba, Selçuk Köse, and Eby G. Friedman. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Shen, Gang, and Zegang Xie. 2013. “Wi-Fi RSS Based Indoor Positioning Using a Probabilistic Reduced Estimator.” In Active Media Technology: 9th International Conference, AMT 2013, Maebashi, Japan, October 29-31, 2013, Proceedings, edited by Tetsuya Yoshida, Gang Kou, Andrzej Skowron, Jiannong Cao, Hakim Hacid, and Ning Zhong, 46–55. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Education Economics.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2015. “Fossil Peruvian Monkey May Have Originated in Africa.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1992. Earth Observing System: Information on NASA’s Incorporation of Existing Data Into EOSDIS. IMTEC-92-79. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Berbery, Maria Luz. 2010. “Predictors of White Adoptive Parents’ Cultural and Racial Socialization Behaviors with Their Asian Adopted Children.” Doctoral dissertation, College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, Mary. 2013. “A Series of Poses for Fitness, Inside and Out.” New York Times, January 3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Scharfman 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Scharfman 2015; Williams and Ceci 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Williams and Ceci 2005)
  • Three authors: (Cohen, Shavit, and Zalevsky 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Priestley et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducation Economics
AbbreviationEduc. Econ.
ISSN (print)0964-5292
ISSN (online)1469-5782
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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