How to format your references using the Education Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Education Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pearson, Helen. 2011. “Epidemiology: Study of a Lifetime.” Nature 471 (7336): 20–24.
A journal article with 2 authors
Giessen, Harald, and Markus Lippitz. 2010. “Physics. Directing Light Emission from Quantum Dots.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 329 (5994): 910–911.
A journal article with 3 authors
Baram, Mor, Dominique Chatain, and Wayne D. Kaplan. 2011. “Nanometer-Thick Equilibrium Films: The Interface between Thermodynamics and Atomistics.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 332 (6026): 206–209.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Cong, Chunxiao, Kun Li, Xi Xiang Zhang, and Ting Yu. 2013. “Visualization of Arrangements of Carbon Atoms in Graphene Layers by Raman Mapping and Atomic-Resolution TEM.” Scientific Reports 3 (February): 1195.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Räisänen, Vilho. 2006. Service Modelling. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Holzinger, Andreas, and Igor Jurisica, eds. 2014. Interactive Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining in Biomedical Informatics: State-of-the-Art and Future Challenges. Vol. 8401. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Benjamas, Nunnapus, and Putchong Uthayopas. 2009. “An Impact of Scheduling Strategy to Parallel FI-Growth Data Mining Algorithm.” In Advances in Information Technology: Third International Conference, IAIT 2009, Bangkok, Thailand, December 1-5, 2009. Proceedings, edited by Borworn Papasratorn, Wichian Chutimaskul, Kriengkrai Porkaew, and Vajirasak Vanijja, 39–47. Communications in Computer and Information Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Education Economics.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle. 2017. “Found: ‘Lost’ Forests Covering An Area Two-Thirds The Size Of Australia.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2003. Business Modernization: Improvements Needed in Management of NASA’s Integrated Financial Management Program. GAO-03-507. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Aguilar, Michelle. 2010. “Latina Single Mothers: Perspectives on Parenting.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sophia Kishkovsky; Compiled by. 2006. “Arts, Briefly; Fire Ravages a Russian Cathedral.” New York Times, August 26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pearson 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Pearson 2011; Giessen and Lippitz 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Giessen and Lippitz 2010)
  • Three authors: (Baram, Chatain, and Kaplan 2011)
  • 4 or more authors: (Cong et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducation Economics
AbbreviationEduc. Econ.
ISSN (print)0964-5292
ISSN (online)1469-5782
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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