How to format your references using the Ecosystem Health and Sustainability citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecosystem Health and Sustainability. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baruch, J. 2014. Practical science has a global reach and appeal. Nature 507:141.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kim, M. S., and J. Cho. 2009. Physics. Teleporting a quantum state to distant matter. Science (New York, N.Y.) 323:469–470.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sugawara, T., F. Kano, and M. Murata. 2014. Rab2A is a pivotal switch protein that promotes either secretion or ER-associated degradation of (pro)insulin in insulin-secreting cells. Scientific reports 4:6952.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Whaley, S. R., D. S. English, E. L. Hu, P. F. Barbara, and A. M. Belcher. 2000. Selection of peptides with semiconductor binding specificity for directed nanocrystal assembly. Nature 405:665–668.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Flynn, M. J., and W. Luk. 2011. Computer System Design. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Osinga, S., G. J. Hofstede, and T. Verwaart, editors. 2011. Emergent Results of Artificial Economics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Lee, I., O. Jeong, and S. Kang. 2011. Study on Emergency Services for VoIP Based on IP Network vs. Domestic Emergency Network. Pages 31–38 in G. Lee, D. Howard, and D. Ślęzak, editors. Convergence and Hybrid Information Technology: 5th International Conference, ICHIT 2011, Daejeon, Korea, September 22-24, 2011. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecosystem Health and Sustainability.

Blog post
Hale, T. 2017, January 9. Chilean Government Releases An Unexplainable “UFO Sighting” Video. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. Small Business Administration: Planning for Loan Monitoring System Has Many Positive Features But Still Carries Implementation Challenges. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hufnagel, D. 2005. Search for the Cabibbo-Supressed D+ Meson Decays D+ → π+π 0 and D+ → K+ π0. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, H. 2016, June 1. Evolving. New York Times:BR17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baruch 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Kim and Cho 2009, Baruch 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kim and Cho 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Whaley et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcosystem Health and Sustainability
AbbreviationEcosyst. Health Sustain.
ISSN (online)2332-8878

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