How to format your references using the Ecosystem Health and Sustainability citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecosystem Health and Sustainability. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grinnell, F. 2013. It is time to update US biomedical funding. Nature 501:137.
A journal article with 2 authors
McCauley, D. W., and M. Bronner-Fraser. 2006. Importance of SoxE in neural crest development and the evolution of the pharynx. Nature 441:750–752.
A journal article with 3 authors
Priola, S. A., B. Chesebro, and B. Caughey. 2003. Biomedicine. A view from the top--prion diseases from 10,000 feet. Science (New York, N.Y.) 300:917–919.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wardemann, H., S. Yurasov, A. Schaefer, J. W. Young, E. Meffre, and M. C. Nussenzweig. 2003. Predominant autoantibody production by early human B cell precursors. Science (New York, N.Y.) 301:1374–1377.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fisher, H. G., H. S. Forrest, S. S. Grossel, J. E. Huff, A. R. Muller, J. A. Noronha, D. A. Shaw, and B. J. Tilley. 1993. Emergency Relief System Design Using DIERS Technology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Aboh, E. O., and J. Essegbey, editors. 2010. Topics in Kwa Syntax. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Boztaş, Ö., F. Karakoç, and M. Çoban. 2013. Multidimensional Meet-in-the-Middle Attacks on Reduced-Round TWINE-128. Pages 55–67 in G. Avoine and O. Kara, editors. Lightweight Cryptography for Security and Privacy: Second International Workshop, LightSec 2013, Gebze, Turkey, May 6-7, 2013, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecosystem Health and Sustainability.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015, June 29. Don’t Freak if you Can’t Solve a Math Problem That’s Gone Viral. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2004. Medicaid: Intergovernmental Transfers Have Facilitated State Financing Schemes. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brown, L. T. 2009. Identifying potential co-repressors associated with dexamethasone-induced repression of the MUC5AC gene. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY, J. C., Jr. 2017, June 10. Charges In Threats To Lawyers Suing Fox. New York Times:B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Grinnell 2013).
This sentence cites two references (McCauley and Bronner-Fraser 2006, Grinnell 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (McCauley and Bronner-Fraser 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Wardemann et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcosystem Health and Sustainability
AbbreviationEcosyst. Health Sustain.
ISSN (online)2332-8878

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