How to format your references using the Ecosystem Health and Sustainability citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecosystem Health and Sustainability. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lutkenhaus, J. 2008. Biochemistry. Tinkering with acellular division. Science (New York, N.Y.) 320:755–756.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sharma, A., and J. F. Hartwig. 2015. Metal-catalysed azidation of tertiary C-H bonds suitable for late-stage functionalization. Nature 517:600–604.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, J., B. Wang, and H. Qiu. 2014. Coalescence and breakup of oppositely charged droplets. Scientific reports 4:7123.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sen, D., B. Balakrishnan, N. Gabriel, P. Agrawal, V. Roshini, R. Samuel, A. Srivastava, and G. R. Jayandharan. 2013. Improved adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype 1 and 5 vectors for gene therapy. Scientific reports 3:1832.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schepers, U. 2004. RNA Interference in Practice. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG.
An edited book
Ruggieri, F., editor. 2014. Criminal Proceedings, Languages and the European Union: Linguistic and Legal Issues. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Swinburn, B. A. 2014. Why Are Governments Abdicating from Dealing with the Obesity Crisis? Pages 23–29 in D. W. Haslam, A. M. Sharma, and C. W. le Roux, editors. Controversies in Obesity. Springer, London.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecosystem Health and Sustainability.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. 2017, February 14. There Are Six Styles Of Love. Which One Best Describes You? IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2011. Department of Labor: Further Management Improvements Needed to Address Information Technology and Financial Controls. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Daczo, Z. 2012. Wage inequality and the gender wage gap: Are American women swimming upstream? Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J. 2017, May 12. Some Gifts Go in the Closet. These Go on the Block. New York Times:A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lutkenhaus 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Lutkenhaus 2008, Sharma and Hartwig 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sharma and Hartwig 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Sen et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcosystem Health and Sustainability
AbbreviationEcosyst. Health Sustain.
ISSN (online)2332-8878

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