How to format your references using the Ecosystem Health and Sustainability citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecosystem Health and Sustainability. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wolfe, S. M. 2003. Medicine. Ephedra--scientific evidence versus money/politics. Science (New York, N.Y.) 300:437.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tsai, L., and G. Barnea. 2014. A critical period defined by axon-targeting mechanisms in the murine olfactory bulb. Science (New York, N.Y.) 344:197–200.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ghosh, D., A. Segal, and T. Voets. 2014. Distinct modes of perimembrane TRP channel turnover revealed by TIR-FRAP. Scientific reports 4:7111.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kim, S. O., H. H. Solak, M. P. Stoykovich, N. J. Ferrier, J. J. De Pablo, and P. F. Nealey. 2003. Epitaxial self-assembly of block copolymers on lithographically defined nanopatterned substrates. Nature 424:411–414.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hanzo, L., T. H. Liew, and B. L. Yeap. 2005. Turbo Coding, Turbo Equalisation and Space-Time Coding. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Sprake, J., editor. 2012. Learning-Through-Touring: Mobilising Learners and Touring Technologies to Creatively Explore the Built Environment. SensePublishers, Rotterdam.
A chapter in an edited book
Sapaty, P. S. 2014. The World as Distributed Brain with Spatial Grasp Paradigm. Pages 65–85 in L. Chen, S. Kapoor, and R. Bhatia, editors. Intelligent Systems for Science and Information: Extended and Selected Results from the Science and Information Conference 2013. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecosystem Health and Sustainability.

Blog post
Evans, K. 2016, July 15. Fat Isn’t Nearly As Bad For You As We Thought — And Another Ingredient Is Likely Worse. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2010. Commercial Aviation: Consumers Could Benefit from Better Information about Airline-Imposed Fees and Refundability of Government-Imposed Taxes and Fees. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gonzalez, S. N. 2010. Analysis of the impact of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act on California’s children: A report card on the CalWORKs program. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich, J. R. 2017, October 12. A Conductor Celebrates Monteverdi’s 450th. New York Times:C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wolfe 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Wolfe 2003, Tsai and Barnea 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tsai and Barnea 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Kim et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcosystem Health and Sustainability
AbbreviationEcosyst. Health Sustain.
ISSN (online)2332-8878

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