How to format your references using the Ecosystem Health and Sustainability citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecosystem Health and Sustainability. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mitchell, K. 2010. Journal club. A neurodevelopmental geneticist explores how one mutation can lead to multiple diseases. Nature 464:1107.
A journal article with 2 authors
Engwerda, C. R., and M. F. Good. 2012. Immunology. Platelets kill the parasite within. Science (New York, N.Y.) 338:1304–1305.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ye, F., M. J. Burns, and M. J. Naughton. 2014. Structured metal thin film as an asymmetric color filter: the forward and reverse plasmonic halos. Scientific reports 4:7267.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Coull, J. A. M., D. Boudreau, K. Bachand, S. A. Prescott, F. Nault, A. Sík, P. De Koninck, and Y. De Koninck. 2003. Trans-synaptic shift in anion gradient in spinal lamina I neurons as a mechanism of neuropathic pain. Nature 424:938–942.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dewe, P. J., M. P. O’Driscoll, and C. L. Cooper. 2010. Coping with Work Stress. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Piekkola, H., and K. Snellman, editors. 2005. Collective Bargaining and Wage Formation: Performance and Challenges. Physica-Verlag HD, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Wang, Y., M. Hu, L. Cao, and W. Wang. 2009. Threatened fishes of the world: Schizothorax taliensis Regan, 1907 (Cyprinidae). Pages 29–30 in D. L. G. Noakes, A. Romero, Y. Zhao, and Y. Zhou, editors. Chinese Fishes. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecosystem Health and Sustainability.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. 2016, September 8. NASA’s New Images Of Titan Remind Us Why This Moon Of Saturn Is So Frickin’ Cool. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. Telecommunications Technology: Federal Funding for Schools and Libraries. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vail, A. S. 2012. The gift of noetic image: Spontaneous imagery and psychological well-being in women with breast cancer. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B. 2016, September 6. Streisand’s ‘Encore’ Tops Album Chart. New York Times:C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mitchell 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Mitchell 2010, Engwerda and Good 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Engwerda and Good 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Coull et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcosystem Health and Sustainability
AbbreviationEcosyst. Health Sustain.
ISSN (online)2332-8878

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