How to format your references using the Arctic Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Arctic Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Montgomery, M.H. 2011. Astronomy. Shooting for the stars. Science 332: 180–181.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cress, C.D., and Datta, S. 2013. Engineering. Nanoscale transistors--just around the gate? Science 341: 140–141.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bates, M.E., Simmons, J.A., and Zorikov, T.V. 2011. Bats use echo harmonic structure to distinguish their targets from background clutter. Science 333: 627–630.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Trauger, J.W., Kohli, R.M., Mootz, H.D., Marahiel, M.A., and Walsh, C.T. 2000. Peptide cyclization catalysed by the thioesterase domain of tyrocidine synthetase. Nature 407: 215–218.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Deacon, M., Derry, A., and Mirfendereski, D. 2004. Inflation-indexed Securities. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Kagan, V. 2013. Sentiment Analysis for PTSD Signals. Edited ByE. Rossini and D. Sapounas. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Bandyopadhyay, A., Das, T., and Yeasmin, S. 2015. Synthetic (Inorganic) Nanoparticles Based Lung Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy. Pages 39–62 in T. Das and S. Yeasmin, eds. Nanoparticles in Lung Cancer Therapy - Recent Trends. Springer India, New Delhi.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Arctic Science.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2016.May 9. How The Last Two Montserrat 'Mountain Chicken’ Frogs Could Save Their Species. IFLScience. [Online] Available: [2018 Oct. 30].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1973. Independent Estimate of Total Annual Costs Associated With Government Owned and Used ADP Equipment. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sanghvi, A.M. 2009. Characterization of algal biomeal for applications in food. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. 2017.October 26. Astros Even It Up in Home Run Derby. New York Times: B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Montgomery 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Montgomery 2011; Cress and Datta 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cress and Datta 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Trauger et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleArctic Science
ISSN (print)2368-7460

Other styles