How to format your references using the Arctic Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Arctic Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Erwin, D. 2009. A call to the custodians of deep time. Nature 462: 282–283.
A journal article with 2 authors
Li, Y., and Zhang, Z. 2014. Potential microRNA-mediated oncogenic intercellular communication revealed by pan-cancer analysis. Sci. Rep. 4: 7097.
A journal article with 3 authors
McGaha, T.L., Sorrentino, B., and Ravetch, J.V. 2005. Restoration of tolerance in lupus by targeted inhibitory receptor expression. Science 307: 590–593.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Soderberg, A.M., Chakraborti, S., Pignata, G., Chevalier, R.A., Chandra, P., Ray, A., Wieringa, M.H., Copete, A., Chaplin, V., Connaughton, V., Barthelmy, S.D., Bietenholz, M.F., Chugai, N., Stritzinger, M.D., Hamuy, M., Fransson, C., Fox, O., Levesque, E.M., Grindlay, J.E., Challis, P., Foley, R.J., Kirshner, R.P., Milne, P.A., and Torres, M.A.P. 2010. A relativistic type Ibc supernova without a detected gamma-ray burst. Nature 463: 513–515.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fjeld, R.A., Eisenberg, N.A., and Compton, K.L. 2007. Quantitative Environmental Risk Analysis for Human Health. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Cheong, O., Chwa, K.-Y., and Park, K. (eds.) 2010. Algorithms and Computation: 21st International Symposium, ISAAC 2010, Jeju Island, Korea, December 15-17, 2010, Proceedings, Part I. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Gruba, P., Cárdenas-Claros, M.S., Suvorov, R., and Rick, K. 2016. Macro-Level Evaluation. Pages 85–104 in M.S. Cárdenas-Claros, R. Suvorov, and K. Rick, eds. Blended Language Program Evaluation. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Arctic Science.

Blog post
Andrew, D. 2016.October 20. Poo Transplants And Probiotics – Does Anything Work To Improve The Health Of Our Gut? IFLScience. [Online] Available: [2018 Oct. 30].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2007. Rail Safety: The Federal Railroad Administration Is Better Targeting Its Oversight, but Needs to Assess the Impact of Its Efforts. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wright, E.A. 2012. Assessing Leadership Behaviors and Demographic Characteristics of Project Managers Associated Through LinkedIn. Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker, P., and Kishkovsky, S. 2017.August 2. Trump Signs Sanctions Bill, but Calls It ‘Clearly Unconstitutional.’ New York Times: A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Erwin 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Erwin 2009; Li and Zhang 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Li and Zhang 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Soderberg et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleArctic Science
ISSN (print)2368-7460

Other styles