How to format your references using the Arctic Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Arctic Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abbott, A. 2003. Membrane proteins: channel voyager makes waves. Nature 426: 755.
A journal article with 2 authors
Parnell, R.J., and Buchanan-Smith, H.M. 2001. Animal behaviour. An unusual social display by gorillas. Nature 412: 294.
A journal article with 3 authors
McLeod, P., Reed, N., and Dienes, Z. 2003. Psychophysics: how fielders arrive in time to catch the ball. Nature 426: 244–245.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kuzmich, A., Bowen, W.P., Boozer, A.D., Boca, A., Chou, C.W., Duan, L.-M., and Kimble, H.J. 2003. Generation of nonclassical photon pairs for scalable quantum communication with atomic ensembles. Nature 423: 731–734.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Martinelli, R.J., Waddell, J.M., and Rahschulte, T.J. 2014. Program Management for Improved Business Results. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Derval, D. 2012. Hormones, Talent, and Career: Unlock Your Hormonal Quotient®. Edited ByJ. Bremer. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Reiter, U., Brunnström, K., De Moor, K., Larabi, M.-C., Pereira, M., Pinheiro, A., You, J., and Zgank, A. 2014. Factors Influencing Quality of Experience. Pages 55–72 in S. Möller and A. Raake, eds. Quality of Experience: Advanced Concepts, Applications and Methods. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Arctic Science.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015.April 17. What Can Beagles Teach Us About Alzheimer’s Disease? IFLScience. [Online] Available: [2018 Oct. 30].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1973. Payments for Independent Research and Development and Bid and Proposal Costs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Engel, S.M. 2016. Proform-antecedent linking in listeners with language impairments and unimpaired listeners. Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. 2007.January 20. Justices Revisit Campaign Finance Issue. New York Times: A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Abbott 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Parnell and Buchanan-Smith 2001; Abbott 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Parnell and Buchanan-Smith 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Kuzmich et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleArctic Science
ISSN (print)2368-7460

Other styles