How to format your references using the Arctic Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Arctic Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Butler, D. 2005. Parasitology: Triple genome triumph. Nature 436: 337.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schuchmann, K., and Müller, V. 2013. Direct and reversible hydrogenation of CO2 to formate by a bacterial carbon dioxide reductase. Science 342: 1382–1385.
A journal article with 3 authors
Coumou, D., Lehmann, J., and Beckmann, J. 2015. Climate change. The weakening summer circulation in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes. Science 348: 324–327.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chendrimada, T.P., Finn, K.J., Ji, X., Baillat, D., Gregory, R.I., Liebhaber, S.A., Pasquinelli, A.E., and Shiekhattar, R. 2007. MicroRNA silencing through RISC recruitment of eIF6. Nature 447: 823–828.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
DeMaris, A. 2004. Regression with Social Data: Modeling Continuous and Limited Response Variables. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Fernandes, G.W., and Santos, J.C. (eds.) 2014. Neotropical Insect Galls. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Watanabe, M. 2008. Palm Vein Authentication. Pages 75–88 in N.K. Ratha and V. Govindaraju, eds. Advances in Biometrics: Sensors, Algorithms and Systems. Springer, London.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Arctic Science.

Blog post
Andrews, R. 2016.August 1. What The Heck Was This Smelly Pink Blob Floating In The Indian Ocean? IFLScience. [Online] Available: [2018 Oct. 30].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2009. Federal Aviation Administration: Human Capital System Incorporates Many Leading Practices, but Improving Employees’ Satisfaction with Their Workplace Remains a Challenge. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kim, J.W. 2009. Perceptually motivated automatic dance motion generation for music. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. 2008.January 20. Food That Recalls a Childhood. New York Times: NJ12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Butler 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Butler 2005; Schuchmann and Müller 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schuchmann and Müller 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Chendrimada et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleArctic Science
ISSN (print)2368-7460

Other styles