How to format your references using the Arctic Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Arctic Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blanchard, J.L. 2015. Climate change: A rewired food web. Nature 527: 173–174.
A journal article with 2 authors
Forcada, J., and Hoffman, J.I. 2014. Climate change selects for heterozygosity in a declining fur seal population. Nature 511: 462–465.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wearn, O.R., Reuman, D.C., and Ewers, R.M. 2012. Extinction debt and windows of conservation opportunity in the Brazilian Amazon. Science 337: 228–232.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sato, Y., Kojima, R., Okumura, M., Hagiwara, M., Masui, S., Maegawa, K.-I., Saiki, M., Horibe, T., Suzuki, M., and Inaba, K. 2013. Synergistic cooperation of PDI family members in peroxiredoxin 4-driven oxidative protein folding. Sci. Rep. 3: 2456.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vitale, J. 2007. The Seven Lost Secrets of Success. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Blum, A.F. 2016. Fire Hazard Assessment of Lithium Ion Battery Energy Storage Systems. Edited ByR.T. Long Jr. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Féray, V., Méliot, P.-L., and Nikeghbali, A. 2016. Fluctuations in the non-lattice case. Pages 33–50 in P.-L. Méliot and A. Nikeghbali, eds. Mod-ϕ Convergence: Normality Zones and Precise Deviations. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Arctic Science.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015.September 18. Stunning, Crystal-Clear Images Of Pluto – But What Do They Mean? IFLScience. [Online] Available: [2018 Oct. 30].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2013. Pipeline Safety: Better Data and Guidance Needed to Improve Pipeline Operator Incident Response. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chan, J.A. 2014. An in-home visitation program for Meals-on-Wheels recipients: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Philpott, M.L. 2017.March 4. Finding What I Need at the Mall. New York Times: SR10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Blanchard 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Forcada and Hoffman 2014; Blanchard 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Forcada and Hoffman 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Sato et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleArctic Science
ISSN (print)2368-7460

Other styles