How to format your references using the Arctic Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Arctic Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rauchfuss, T.B. 2007. Chemistry. A promising mimic of hydrogenase activity. Science 316: 553–554.
A journal article with 2 authors
Liu, C.C., and Arkin, A.P. 2010. Cell biology. The case for RNA. Science 330: 1185–1186.
A journal article with 3 authors
Applegate, P.J., Lowell, T.V., and Alley, R.B. 2008. Comment on “Absence of cooling in New Zealand and the adjacent ocean during the Younger Dryas chronozone.” Science 320: 746; author reply 746.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mettetal, J.T., Muzzey, D., Gómez-Uribe, C., and van Oudenaarden, A. 2008. The frequency dependence of osmo-adaptation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Science 319: 482–484.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Woolley, T. 2013. Low Impact Building. John Wiley & Sons, Oxford.
An edited book
Tan, K.-Y. (ed.) 2015. Transdisciplinary Perioperative Care in Colorectal Surgery: An Integrative Approach. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Wang, Y., Liang, Z., and Shen, L. 2015. Global Sufficient Conditions for Nonconvex Cubic Minimization Problem with Box Constraints. Pages 33–40 in D. Gao, N. Ruan, and W. Xing, eds. Advances in Global Optimization. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Arctic Science.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2014.March 17. A Biologist’s St. Patrick’s Day Song. IFLScience. [Online] Available:’s-st-patrick’s-day-song/ [2018 Oct. 30].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2007. Reading First: States Report Improvements in Reading Instruction, but Additional Procedures Would Clarify Education’s Role in Ensuring Proper Implementation by States. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Selby, C. 2015. With|out. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B. 2017.February 9. Prince Estate in Deal With Universal. New York Times: C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rauchfuss 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Rauchfuss 2007; Liu and Arkin 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Liu and Arkin 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Mettetal et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleArctic Science
ISSN (print)2368-7460

Other styles