How to format your references using the Computational Optimization and Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computational Optimization and Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Wadman, M.: Biochemist strikes gold. Nature. 441, 689 (2006)
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Tam, W.Y., Ma, C.H.E.: Bipolar/rod-shaped microglia are proliferating microglia with distinct M1/M2 phenotypes. Sci. Rep. 4, 7279 (2014)
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Li, C.W., Ciston, J., Kanan, M.W.: Electroreduction of carbon monoxide to liquid fuel on oxide-derived nanocrystalline copper. Nature. 508, 504–507 (2014)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1.
Ma, Y., Dai, Y., Wei, W., Huang, B., Whangbo, M.-H.: Strain-induced quantum spin Hall effect in methyl-substituted germanane GeCH3. Sci. Rep. 4, 7297 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Mihajlovic-Madzarevic, V.: Clinical Trials Audit Preparation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2010)
An edited book
1.
Baloian, N., Zorian, Y., Taslakian, P., Shoukouryan, S. eds: Collaboration and Technology: 21st International Conference, CRIWG 2015, Yerevan, Armenia, September 22-25, 2015, Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015)
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Prato-Previde, E., Marshall-Pescini, S.: Social Looking in the Domestic Dog. In: Horowitz, A. (ed.) Domestic Dog Cognition and Behavior: The Scientific Study of Canis familiaris. pp. 101–131. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2014)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computational Optimization and Applications.

Blog post
1.
Andrew, E.: 5 Diseases You Should Be More Afraid Of Than Ebola, https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/5-diseases-you-should-be-more-afraid-ebola/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office: Mass Transit: Project Management Oversight Benefits and Future Funding Requirements. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2000)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Nam, S.: A method for teaching jazz improvisation to beginning pianists in a group setting, (2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Crow, K.: Frequent Fliers: Takeout Menus Can’t Compete With Politics, (2001)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputational Optimization and Applications
AbbreviationComput. Optim. Appl.
ISSN (print)0926-6003
ISSN (online)1573-2894
ScopeApplied Mathematics
Computational Mathematics
Control and Optimization

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