How to format your references using the Computational Optimization and Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computational Optimization and Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
De, S.: Journal club. A biologist looks at the effect of a dynamic nuclear environment on gene expression. Nature. 460, 15 (2009)
A journal article with 2 authors
Jacob, Y., Martienssen, R.: Molecular biology. All packed up and ready to go. Science. 336, 1391–1392 (2012)
A journal article with 3 authors
Palazzo, A., Ackerman, B., Gundersen, G.G.: Cell biology: Tubulin acetylation and cell motility. Nature. 421, 230 (2003)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Cardinale, B.J., Srivastava, D.S., Duffy, J.E., Wright, J.P., Downing, A.L., Sankaran, M., Jouseau, C.: Effects of biodiversity on the functioning of trophic groups and ecosystems. Nature. 443, 989–992 (2006)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Allman, K., Nogales, X.E.D.: Impact Investment. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ (2015)
An edited book
Rossi, F.: Controlled Drug Delivery Systems: Towards New Frontiers in Patient Care. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)
A chapter in an edited book
Azkarate, A., Escribano-Ruiz, S., Sánchez-Pinto, I., Benedet, V.: Thoughts on Early Spanish Colonialism Through Two American Case Studies: Basque Fisheries (Canada) and Sancti Spiritus Settlement (Argentina). In: Montón-Subías, S., Cruz Berrocal, M., and Ruiz Martínez, A. (eds.) Archaeologies of Early Modern Spanish Colonialism. pp. 93–115. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computational Optimization and Applications.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: How Viruses Can Fool The Immune System,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Improving COBOL Application Can Recover Significant Computer Resources. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1982)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sanchez, M.: For imagination and love – The permanence of the Mexican father who fathers at a distance, (2012)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, R.K.R., whose most recent book of poems is ’ ’Not This Island Music, Literature, ’ ’ Teaches, writing at Bard College: I AM NOT A HALFBACK, (1987)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputational Optimization and Applications
AbbreviationComput. Optim. Appl.
ISSN (print)0926-6003
ISSN (online)1573-2894
ScopeApplied Mathematics
Computational Mathematics
Control and Optimization

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