How to format your references using the Computational Optimization and Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computational Optimization and Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kling, J.: Careers in systems biology. Working the systems. Science. 311, 1305–1306 (2006)
A journal article with 2 authors
Thiel, P.A., Dubois, J.M.: Quasicrystals. Electrons in a strange sea. Nature. 406, 570–1, 573 (2000)
A journal article with 3 authors
Williams, M.A., Tyznik, A.J., Bevan, M.J.: Interleukin-2 signals during priming are required for secondary expansion of CD8+ memory T cells. Nature. 441, 890–893 (2006)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang, L., Chen, Y., Ma, J., Chen, L., Xu, Z., Wang, T.: Hierarchical SnO2 nanospheres: bio-inspired mineralization, vulcanization, oxidation techniques, and the application for NO sensors. Sci. Rep. 3, 3500 (2013)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Parker, D.: International Valuation Standards. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2016)
An edited book
Li, D. ed: Computer And Computing Technologies In Agriculture, Volume II: First IFIP TC 12 International Conference on Computer and Computing Technologies in Agriculture (CCTA 2007), Wuyishan, China, August 18-20, 2007. Springer US, Boston, MA (2008)
A chapter in an edited book
Deldjoo, Y., Elahi, M., Quadrana, M., Cremonesi, P.: Toward Building a Content-Based Video Recommendation System Based on Low-Level Features. In: Stuckenschmidt, H. and Jannach, D. (eds.) E-Commerce and Web Technologies: 16th International Conference on Electronic Commerce and Web Technologies, EC-Web 2015, Valencia, Spain, September 2015, Revised Selected Papers. pp. 45–56. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computational Optimization and Applications.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J.: Feast Your Eyes On The World’s Biggest Plane,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Implications of Joint NASA/DOD Participation in Space Shuttle Operations. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1983)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hausmann, R.C.: Organizing Ecosystems for Social Innovation: The Relationality of Contexts and Mechanisms in a Social Entrepreneurship Network, (2015)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputational Optimization and Applications
AbbreviationComput. Optim. Appl.
ISSN (print)0926-6003
ISSN (online)1573-2894
ScopeApplied Mathematics
Computational Mathematics
Control and Optimization

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