How to format your references using the Computational Optimization and Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computational Optimization and Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vargas-Parada, L.: Pathology: Three questions. Nature. 488, S14-5 (2012)
A journal article with 2 authors
Belkaid, Y., Grainger, J.: Immunology. Mucus coat, a dress code for tolerance. Science. 342, 432–433 (2013)
A journal article with 3 authors
De’ath, G., Lough, J.M., Fabricius, K.E.: Declining coral calcification on the Great Barrier Reef. Science. 323, 116–119 (2009)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gao, Y., Ferguson, D.O., Xie, W., Manis, J.P., Sekiguchi, J., Frank, K.M., Chaudhuri, J., Horner, J., DePinho, R.A., Alt, F.W.: Interplay of p53 and DNA-repair protein XRCC4 in tumorigenesis, genomic stability and development. Nature. 404, 897–900 (2000)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Webb, R.C.: Tele-Visionaries. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2005)
An edited book
Greenberg, C.H., Collins, B.S. eds: Natural Disturbances and Historic Range of Variation: Type, Frequency, Severity, and Post-disturbance Structure in Central Hardwood Forests USA. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)
A chapter in an edited book
Patterson, G.: A Historically Black High School Remains Intact. In: Noblit, G.W. (ed.) School Desegregation: Oral Histories toward Understanding the Effects of White Domination. pp. 63–76. SensePublishers, Rotterdam (2015)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computational Optimization and Applications.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Newly Released Footage Shows A Wild Panda Masturbating,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Need To Improve Administration of Fees and Charges of Regulatory Agencies. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1970)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Surges, G.: Generative Audio Systems: Musical Applications of Time-Varying Feedback Networks and Computational Aesthetics, (2015)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Codrea-Rado, A.: Pharrell Williams Kneels in Protest, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputational Optimization and Applications
AbbreviationComput. Optim. Appl.
ISSN (print)0926-6003
ISSN (online)1573-2894
ScopeApplied Mathematics
Computational Mathematics
Control and Optimization

Other styles