How to format your references using the Econometrica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Econometrica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain, C. (2000): “US energy agency pulls plug on role in genome project,” Nature, 404, 4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rauschenberger, R., and S. Yantis. (2001): “Masking unveils pre-amodal completion representation in visual search,” Nature, 410, 369–72.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rakitzis, T. P., A. J. van den Brom, and M. H. M. Janssen. (2004): “Directional dynamics in the photodissociation of oriented molecules,” Science (New York, N.Y.), 303, 1852–54.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Min, M. S., S. Y. Yang, R. M. Bonett, D. R. Vieites, R. A. Brandon, and D. B. Wake. (2005): “Discovery of the first Asian plethodontid salamander,” Nature, 435, 87–90.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Baher, H. (2012): Signal Processing and Integrated Circuits, Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Smith, J. R. (2009): Women’s Cancers: Pathways to Healing: A Patient’s Guide to Dealing with Cancer and Abnormal Smears, Ed. by. Giuseppe Del PrioreLondon: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Dillane, D., and B. C. H. Tsui. (2015): “Use of Nerve Stimulation and Stimulating Catheters in the Ultrasound Era,” in Regional Nerve Blocks in Anesthesia and Pain Therapy: Traditional and Ultrasound-Guided Techniques, ed. by Peng, P. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 57–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Econometrica.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2017): “Time Crystals Are Now A Thing,” IFLScience, IFLScience, Accessed 10/30/2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998): Department of the Interior: Year 2000 Computing Crisis Presents Risk of Disruption to Key Operations,Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tseng, Y. H.-H. (2008): “Motivation of Participation in Inservice Training Based on Problem Solving: A Modified Delphi Study,”Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. (2015): “A Puerto Rican Utility Makes Progress Toward a Debt Deal,” New York Times, .

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Macilwain (2000)).
This sentence cites two references (Macilwain (2000); Rauschenberger and Yantis (2001)).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rauschenberger and Yantis (2001))
  • Three authors: (Rakitzis, van den Brom, and Janssen (2004))
  • 4 or more authors: (Min et al. (2005))

About the journal

Full journal titleEconometrica
ISSN (print)0012-9682
ISSN (online)1468-0262
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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