How to format your references using the Ecology of Freshwater Fish citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecology of Freshwater Fish. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Weinberg, S. 2003. Scientist: four golden lessons. Nature, 426: 389.
A journal article with 2 authors
Roth, A., & Diederichs, S. 2015. Molecular biology: Rap and chirp about X inactivation. Nature, 521: 170–171.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tasker, S. Z., Standley, E. A., & Jamison, T. F. 2014. Recent advances in homogeneous nickel catalysis. Nature, 509: 299–309.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Zhang, S., Xie, C., Wang, Q., & Liu, Z. 2014. Interactions of CaMKII with dopamine D2 receptors: roles in levodopa-induced dyskinesia in 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned Parkinson’s rats. Scientific reports, 4: 6811.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McGee, G. 2012. Bioethics for beginners. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Priami, C., Back, R.-J., Petre, I., & Vink, E. de (Eds.). 2011. Transactions on Computational Systems Biology XIII (Vol. 6575). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Gámez, J., Rosa, D., Alcántara, E., Montaner, A., Gutierrez, J. M., Comín, M., Vera, P., & Prat, J. 2006. Analysis of the Relationship Between Mechanical Properties and Players’ Perception of the Balls in a Spanish Traditional Sport: “La Pilota Valenciana.” In: S. Haake, ed. The Engineering of Sport 6: Volume 2: Developments for Disciplines. Springer: New York, NY, pp. 23–28.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecology of Freshwater Fish.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. 2017, January 17. Gene Cernan, The Last Person To Set Foot On The Moon, Dies At 82. IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1987. U.S. Science and Engineering Base: A Synthesis of Concerns About Budget and Policy Development (No. RCED-87-65). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wang, B. 2017. An Embedded Method for Near-Wellbore Streamline Simulation (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Haberman, M., & Landler, M. 2017, July 13. In Paris, Trump Stands by His Son and Praises Macron. New York Times, p. A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Weinberg, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Weinberg, 2003; Roth & Diederichs, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Roth & Diederichs, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Tasker, Standley, & Jamison, 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Zhang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcology of Freshwater Fish
AbbreviationEcol. Freshw. Fish
ISSN (print)0906-6691
ISSN (online)1600-0633
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles