How to format your references using the Ecology of Freshwater Fish citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecology of Freshwater Fish. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Houllier, F. 2012. Biotechnology: Bring more rigour to GM research. Nature, 491: 327.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kath, W. L., & Ottino, J. M. 2007. Chemistry. Rhythm engineering. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316: 1857–1858.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hoehler, T. M., Bebout, B. M., & Des Marais, D. J. 2001. The role of microbial mats in the production of reduced gases on the early Earth. Nature, 412: 324–327.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Luik, R. M., Wang, B., Prakriya, M., Wu, M. M., & Lewis, R. S. 2008. Oligomerization of STIM1 couples ER calcium depletion to CRAC channel activation. Nature, 454: 538–542.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Picard, F., & Tanguy, C. 2016. Innovations and Techno-ecological Transition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Webber, C. L., Jr., & Marwan, N. (Eds.). 2015. Recurrence Quantification Analysis: Theory and Best Practices. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Batko, B., & Brzdȩk, J. 2014. A Remark on Some Simultaneous Functional Inequalities in Riesz Spaces. In: T. M. Rassias & L. Tóth, eds. Topics in Mathematical Analysis and Applications. Springer International Publishing: Cham, pp. 111–117.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecology of Freshwater Fish.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. 2015, October 6. Particle Accelerator Breakthrough Reduces Their Size By A Factor Of 100. IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. Telecommunications: Process by Which Mergers of Local Telephone Companies Are Reviewed (No. RCED-99-223). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Daly, K. M. 2008. Cinema 3.0: How digital and computer technologies are changing cinema (Doctoral dissertation). Columbia University, New York, NY.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Simonson, J. 2017, September 25. Nothing Is Free. New York Times, p. A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Houllier, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Kath & Ottino, 2007; Houllier, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kath & Ottino, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Hoehler, Bebout, & Des Marais, 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Luik et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcology of Freshwater Fish
AbbreviationEcol. Freshw. Fish
ISSN (print)0906-6691
ISSN (online)1600-0633
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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