How to format your references using the Ecology of Freshwater Fish citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecology of Freshwater Fish. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lewis, R. 2007. Genes versus cancer. Nature, 446: 826–827.
A journal article with 2 authors
Casanova, J.-L., & Abel, L. 2007. Primary immunodeficiencies: a field in its infancy. Science (New York, N.Y.), 317: 617–619.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mennill, D. J., Ratcliffe, L. M., & Boag, P. T. 2002. Female eavesdropping on male song contests in songbirds. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296: 873.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Xu, X., Huang, D., Cao, K., Wang, M., Zakeeruddin, S. M., & Grätzel, M. 2013. Electrochemically reduced graphene oxide multilayer films as efficient counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells. Scientific reports, 3: 1489.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lévy, P. 2013. The Semantic Sphere 1. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Noy, A. (Ed.). 2008. Handbook of Molecular Force Spectroscopy. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Shetty, N., & Iyer, K. M. 2013. The Forearm. In: K. M. Iyer, ed. Trauma Management in Orthopedics. Springer: London, pp. 39–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecology of Freshwater Fish.

Blog post
Davis, J. 2015, July 29. Parasitic Beetle Mimics Ants By “Speaking” Three Different “Languages.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1980. Comments on Claim Against Mississippi for Disallowed Educational Grant Expenditures (No. B-198493). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chongkrairatanakul, W. 2012. Foreign-educated nurses (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Davey, M. 2013, March 14. Bankruptcy Lawyer Is Named to Rescue Detroit From Fiscal Disaster. New York Times, p. A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lewis, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Casanova & Abel, 2007; Lewis, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Casanova & Abel, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Mennill, Ratcliffe, & Boag, 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Xu et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcology of Freshwater Fish
AbbreviationEcol. Freshw. Fish
ISSN (print)0906-6691
ISSN (online)1600-0633
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles