How to format your references using the Ecology of Freshwater Fish citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecology of Freshwater Fish. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pilling, M. J. 2014. Chemical Kinetics. Calculating the pressure dependence of chemical reactions. Science (New York, N.Y.), 346: 1183–1184.
A journal article with 2 authors
Anikeeva, P., & Koppes, R. A. 2015. BIOENGINEERING. Restoring the sense of touch. Science (New York, N.Y.), 350: 274–275.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schliekelman, P., Garner, C., & Slatkin, M. 2001. Natural selection and resistance to HIV. Nature, 411: 545–546.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Xiao, X., Yao, Y., Zhou, L.-M., & Wang, X. 2014. Distribution of quantum Fisher information in asymmetric cloning machines. Scientific reports, 4: 7361.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Weinstein, S. 2009. The Complete Guide to Fundraising Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Khatib, O., Kumar, V., & Rus, D. (Eds.). 2008. Experimental Robotics: The 10th International Symposium on Experimental Robotics (Vol. 39). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Klein, G. H. 2013. Linking the Person-Centered Approach to the Arts: Person-Centered Expressive Arts Therapy and Empowerment. In: J. H. D. Cornelius-White, R. Motschnig-Pitrik, & M. Lux, eds. Interdisciplinary Applications of the Person-Centered Approach. Springer: New York, NY, pp. 49–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecology of Freshwater Fish.

Blog post
Fang, J. 2015, April 30. Newly Discovered Dinosaur had Wings like a Bat. IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. Laboratory Research: Sales and Use Tax Costs to Build DOE’s Spallation Neutron Source Project (No. RCED-00-33R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Blanchard, E. J. 2010. Legato trombone: A survey of pedagogical resources (Doctoral dissertation). University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. 2006, March 1. Vermont Campaign Limits Get Cool Reception at Court. New York Times, p. A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pilling, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Pilling, 2014; Anikeeva & Koppes, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Anikeeva & Koppes, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Schliekelman, Garner, & Slatkin, 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Xiao et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcology of Freshwater Fish
AbbreviationEcol. Freshw. Fish
ISSN (print)0906-6691
ISSN (online)1600-0633
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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