How to format your references using the Chemical Engineering and Processing - Process Intensification citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chemical Engineering and Processing - Process Intensification. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
W. Roebroeks, Archaeology: Art on the move, Nature. 514 (2014) 170–171.
A journal article with 2 authors
I. Tabas, C.K. Glass, Anti-inflammatory therapy in chronic disease: challenges and opportunities, Science. 339 (2013) 166–172.
A journal article with 3 authors
H.S. Lim, Y.S. Rim, H.J. Kim, Photoresist-free fully self-patterned transparent amorphous oxide thin-film transistors obtained by sol-gel process, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4544.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A.R. Oganov, R. Martonák, A. Laio, P. Raiteri, M. Parrinello, Anisotropy of Earth’s D’’ layer and stacking faults in the MgSiO3 post-perovskite phase, Nature. 438 (2005) 1142–1144.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D.R. Schwarz, Reading the European Novel to 1900, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2014.
An edited book
A.C. Alonzo, A.W. Gotwals, eds., Learning Progressions in Science: Current Challenges and Future Directions, SensePublishers, Rotterdam, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
N. Altwaijry, M. El Bachir Menai, A Swarm Random Walk Algorithm for Global Continuous Optimization, in: J.-S. Pan, P. Krömer, V. Snášel (Eds.), Genetic and Evolutionary Computing: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Genetic and Evolutionary Computing, ICGEC 2013, August 25 - 27, 2013 - Prague, Czech Republic, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014: pp. 33–43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chemical Engineering and Processing - Process Intensification.

Blog post
R. Andrews, Germany Just Produced So Much Renewable Energy That It Had To Pay People To Use It, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Determination of Costs Relating to the Environmental Education Act, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
G.M. Borchardt, Making D.C. Democracy’s Capital: Local Activism, the “Federal State”, and the Struggle for Civil Rights in Washington, D.C, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G.G. Gustines, Giving Archie a Makeover at 74, New York Times. (2015) AR3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleChemical Engineering and Processing - Process Intensification
AbbreviationChem. Eng. Process.
ISSN (print)0255-2701
ScopeGeneral Chemical Engineering
Process Chemistry and Technology
General Chemistry
Energy Engineering and Power Technology
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

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