How to format your references using the Chemical Engineering and Processing - Process Intensification citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chemical Engineering and Processing - Process Intensification. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R. Garwood, Reach out to defend evolution, Nature. 485 (2012) 281.
A journal article with 2 authors
B.B. Jørgensen, S. D’Hondt, Ecology. A starving majority deep beneath the seafloor, Science. 314 (2006) 932–934.
A journal article with 3 authors
L.L. Gollo, O. Kinouchi, M. Copelli, Single-neuron criticality optimizes analog dendritic computation, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 3222.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
N.A. Bhowmick, A. Chytil, D. Plieth, A.E. Gorska, N. Dumont, S. Shappell, M.K. Washington, E.G. Neilson, H.L. Moses, TGF-beta signaling in fibroblasts modulates the oncogenic potential of adjacent epithelia, Science. 303 (2004) 848–851.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
K.B. Lee, Principles of Microelectromechanical Systems, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
A.-L. Chew, H.I. Maibach, eds., Irritant Dermatitis, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
A.O. Ainoo, N. Amegbey, R.S. Suglo, Environmental Impact of Mining and Ore Processing – A Case Study at Satellite Goldfields Limited, in: I.N. Luginaah, E.K. Yanful (Eds.), Environment and Health in Sub-Saharan Africa: Managing an Emerging Crisis: Selected Papers from ERTEP 2007, July 17-19 2007, Ghana, Africa, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2009: pp. 53–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chemical Engineering and Processing - Process Intensification.

Blog post
D. Andrew, Radical Overhaul Needed To Halt Earth’s Sixth Great Extinction Event, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Improved Management of Computer Resources Needed To Enhance Marine Corps’ Efficiency and Effectiveness, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R. Ortega, Effects of cultural and linguistic differences in breast cancer screening behaviors among elderly Latina women, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Greenhouse, Justices Restore Judges’ Control Over Sentencing, New York Times. (2007) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleChemical Engineering and Processing - Process Intensification
AbbreviationChem. Eng. Process.
ISSN (print)0255-2701
ScopeGeneral Chemical Engineering
Process Chemistry and Technology
General Chemistry
Energy Engineering and Power Technology
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

Other styles