How to format your references using the Environment Systems and Decisions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environment Systems and Decisions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kerr RA (2000) CLIMATE PREDICTION: Second Thoughts on Skill Of El Nino Predictions. Science 290:257–258
A journal article with 2 authors
Sprecher SG, Desplan C (2008) Switch of rhodopsin expression in terminally differentiated Drosophila sensory neurons. Nature 454:533–537
A journal article with 3 authors
Strauss SH, Costanza A, Séguin A (2015) BIOTECHNOLOGY. Genetically engineered trees: Paralysis from good intentions. Science 349:794–795
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Wallraff A, Lukashenko A, Lisenfeld J, et al (2003) Quantum dynamics of a single vortex. Nature 425:155–158

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Douglas J, Noy EA (2010) Building Surveys and Reports. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
ElMaraghy HA (ed) (2012) Enabling Manufacturing Competitiveness and Economic Sustainability: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Changeable, Agile, Reconfigurable and Virtual production (CARV2011), Montreal, Canada, 2-5 October 2011. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Johnson WE, Koepfli K (2014) The Role of Genomics in Conservation and Reproductive Sciences. In: Holt WV, Brown JL, Comizzoli P (eds) Reproductive Sciences in Animal Conservation: Progress and Prospects. Springer, New York, NY, pp 71–96

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environment Systems and Decisions.

Blog post
Hale T (2017) Captive Orca Theme Parks Are Sadly Thriving In China. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1971) Use of Construction Authority by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vespa MC (2013) System Identification and Compensation Using a Surface-Bristle Deflection Model. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Tackett M (2017) Puerto Rico’s Hurricane Victims Could Find Political Clout in Florida. New York Times A13

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kerr 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Kerr 2000; Sprecher and Desplan 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sprecher and Desplan 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Wallraff et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironment Systems and Decisions
AbbreviationEnviron. Syst. Decis.
ISSN (print)2194-5403
ISSN (online)2194-5411
ScopeGeneral Environmental Science

Other styles