How to format your references using the Environment Systems and Decisions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environment Systems and Decisions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
von Hippel FN (2001) Energy. Plutonium and reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. Science 293:2397–2398
A journal article with 2 authors
Kang S, Douglas T (2010) Biochemistry. Some enzymes just need a space of their own. Science 327:42–43
A journal article with 3 authors
Villegas CEP, Mendonça PB, Rocha AR (2014) Optical spectrum of bottom-up graphene nanoribbons: towards efficient atom-thick excitonic solar cells. Sci Rep 4:6579
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Sauerwald A, Zhu W, Major TA, et al (2005) RNA-dependent cysteine biosynthesis in archaea. Science 307:1969–1972

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Harte L (2013) Reading the Contemporary Irish Novel 1987-2007. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Tollis IG, Patrignani M (eds) (2009) Graph Drawing: 16th International Symposium, GD 2008, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, September 21-24, 2008. Revised Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Roussopoulos N, Utz W (2016) Design Semantics on Accessibility in Unstructured Data Environments. In: Karagiannis D, Mayr HC, Mylopoulos J (eds) Domain-Specific Conceptual Modeling: Concepts, Methods and Tools. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 79–101

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environment Systems and Decisions.

Blog post
Luntz S (2014) This Tiny Camera Could Take Real Time Images From Inside Your Arteries. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1995) Amtrak’s Northeast Corridor Funding Needs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McGrath PM (2013) Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008: A policy analysis. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kaminer M (2017) Israeli Street Food in an English Kitchen. New York Times TR11

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (von Hippel 2001).
This sentence cites two references (von Hippel 2001; Kang and Douglas 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kang and Douglas 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Sauerwald et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironment Systems and Decisions
AbbreviationEnviron. Syst. Decis.
ISSN (print)2194-5403
ISSN (online)2194-5411
ScopeGeneral Environmental Science

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