How to format your references using the Earthquake Spectra citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earthquake Spectra. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Del Genio, A. D., 2002. Atmospheric science. The dust settles on water vapor feedback. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5568), 665–666.
A journal article with 2 authors
Baudrimont, A., and Becskei, A., 2015. Gene regulation: Expression feels two pulses. Nature, 527(7576), 46–47.
A journal article with 3 authors
Frederickson, M. E., Greene, M. J., and Gordon, D. M., 2005. Ecology: “Devil’s gardens” bedevilled by ants. Nature, 437(7058), 495–496.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lee, E., Benayad, A., Shin, T., Lee, H., Ko, D.-S., Kim, T. S., Son, K. S., et al., 2014. Nanocrystalline ZnON; high mobility and low band gap semiconductor material for high performance switch transistor and image sensor application. Scientific reports, 4, 4948.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Milne, D., 2012. The Psychology of Retirement. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Dubucs, J., and Bourdeau, M. (Eds.), 2014. Constructivity and Computability in Historical and Philosophical Perspective. Logic, Epistemology, and the Unity of Science (Vol. 34). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Im, S., Chang, Y.-G., and Kim, J., 2013. PECCS Measurements in Oxide FETs. In Y.-G. Chang and J. H. Kim (Eds.), Photo-Excited Charge Collection Spectroscopy: Probing the traps in field-effect transistors, SpringerBriefs in Physics (pp. 59–81). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earthquake Spectra.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2016, May 6. How Corruption Is Hurting Mexico City’s Efforts To Tackle Air Pollution. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1977. Questions Persist about Federal Support for Development of Curriculum Materials and Behavior Modification Techniques Used in Local Schools ( No. HRD-77-49). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sarkar, D., 2008. Nanopass compiler infrastructure (Doctoral dissertation). Bloomington, IN: Indiana University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt, L. F., 2005, November 13. Stories From the Battlefield Inspire a Teacher’s World War II Novel. New York Times, 14LI10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Del Genio, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Baudrimont and Becskei, 2015; Del Genio, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Baudrimont and Becskei, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Lee et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarthquake Spectra
ISSN (print)8755-2930
ISSN (online)1944-8201

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