How to format your references using the Earthquake Spectra citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earthquake Spectra. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sage, L., 2001. Scope for improvement. Nature, 414(6864), 4–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Valiela, I., and Fox, S. E., 2008. Ecology. Managing coastal wetlands. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5861), 290–291.
A journal article with 3 authors
Langer, P., Hogendoorn, K., and Keller, L., 2004. Tug-of-war over reproduction in a social bee. Nature, 428(6985), 844–847.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Okamoto, R., O’Brien, J. L., Hofmann, H. F., Nagata, T., Sasaki, K., and Takeuchi, S., 2009. An entanglement filter. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5913), 483–485.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yu, S. F., 2005. Analysis and Design of Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Sinclair, N., Pimm, D., and Higginson, W. (Eds.), 2007. Mathematics and the Aesthetic: New Approaches to an Ancient Affinity. CMS Books in Mathematics. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Nordström, L., and Babazadeh, D., 2015. Cyber Physical Approach to HVDC Grid Control. In S. K. Khaitan, J. D. McCalley, and C. C. Liu (Eds.), Cyber Physical Systems Approach to Smart Electric Power Grid, Power Systems (pp. 75–101). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earthquake Spectra.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014, March 20. Plastic Bags Efficiently Recycled Into Diesel Fuel. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2015. Strategic Sourcing: Opportunities Exist to Better Manage Information Technology Services Spending ( No. GAO-15-549). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mihalcin, D., 2008. A comparison of the Children’s Functional Assessment Rating Scale and the Child Behavior Checklist used in a wraparound program (Doctoral dissertation). Minneapolis, MN: Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hirsch, G. A., 2014, October 19. One Man’s Vision: Footrace in Five Boroughs. New York Times, SP10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sage, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Sage, 2001; Valiela and Fox, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Valiela and Fox, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Okamoto et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarthquake Spectra
ISSN (print)8755-2930
ISSN (online)1944-8201

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