How to format your references using the Earthquake Spectra citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earthquake Spectra. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Munk, W., 2003. Ocean science. Ocean freshening, sea level rising. Science (New York, N.Y.), 300(5628), 2041–2043.
A journal article with 2 authors
Saltiel, A. R., and Kahn, C. R., 2001. Insulin signalling and the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. Nature, 414(6865), 799–806.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang, W., Kawamata, H., and Liu, K., 2009. CH stretching excitation in the early barrier F + CHD3 reaction inhibits CH bond cleavage. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5938), 303–306.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Borden, J. H., Marland, G., Schlamadinger, B., Matthews, R., Schulze, E. D., Wirth, C., and Heimann, M., 2000. “Kyoto forests” and a broader perspective on management. Science (New York, N.Y.), 290(5498), 1895c–986c.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kaszeta, D., 2012. CBRN and Hazmat Incidents at Major Public Events. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Cazenave, A., Champollion, N., Benveniste, J., and Chen, J. (Eds.), 2016. Remote Sensing and Water Resources. Space Sciences Series of ISSI (Vol. 55). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Clark, J. P., and Lau, N. C., 2014. Piwi Proteins and piRNAs Step onto the Systems Biology Stage. In G. W. Yeo (Ed.), Systems Biology of RNA Binding Proteins, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology (pp. 159–197). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earthquake Spectra.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2016, May 6. Reading To Your Child: The Difference It Makes. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2001. Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Airport and Airway Trust Fund Excise Taxes ( No. GAO-01-384R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mackay, E. A., 2009. Title I funding allocation of reserve funds after increased standards for academic proficiency under the federal No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (Doctoral dissertation). Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sophia Kishkovsky; Compiled by, 2005, November 21. Arts, Briefly; Rare Violin in the Spotlight. New York Times, E2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Munk, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Munk, 2003; Saltiel and Kahn, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Saltiel and Kahn, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Borden et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarthquake Spectra
ISSN (print)8755-2930
ISSN (online)1944-8201

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