How to format your references using the Earthquake Spectra citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earthquake Spectra. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tylianakis, J. M., 2009. Ecology. Warming up food webs. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5919), 1300–1301.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ekström, G., and Stark, C. P., 2013. Simple scaling of catastrophic landslide dynamics. Science (New York, N.Y.), 339(6126), 1416–1419.
A journal article with 3 authors
Martens, J. A., Laprade, L., and Winston, F., 2004. Intergenic transcription is required to repress the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SER3 gene. Nature, 429(6991), 571–574.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Dillin, A., Hsu, A.-L., Arantes-Oliveira, N., Lehrer-Graiwer, J., Hsin, H., Fraser, A. G., Kamath, R. S., et al., 2002. Rates of behavior and aging specified by mitochondrial function during development. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5602), 2398–2401.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mansour, M., Wilhite, R., and Rowe, J., 2017. Guide to Ruminant Anatomy. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hodler, J., Zollikofer, C. L., and Schulthess, G. K. von (Eds.), 2007. Diseases of the Heart, Chest & Breast: Diagnostic Imaging and Interventional Techniques 39th International Diagnostic Course in Davos (IDKD) Davos, March 25–30, 2007 Pediatric Satellite Course “Kangaroo” Davos, March 24–25, 2007. Milano: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Biollay, Y., Chaabouni, A., and Stubbe, J., 2007. Funzioni. In A. Chaabouni, J. Stubbe, and A. Quarteroni (Eds.), Matematica si parte!: Nozioni di base ed esercizi per il primo anno di Ingegneria, UNITEXT (pp. 67–77). Milano: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earthquake Spectra.

Blog post
Hamilton, K., 2016, September 29. How The Human Brain Can Register Information Without Conscious Attention. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1993. Test and Evaluation: DOD Has Been Slow In Improving Testing of Software-Intensive Systems ( No. NSIAD-93-198). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Khayyat, A. M., 2015. Use of near field communication technology to prevent consumption and usage of expired products (Doctoral dissertation). Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY, J. C., Jr., and Baker, A. L., 2017, September 5. Trial to Open in Case That Highlights Complaints About Justice System. New York Times, A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Tylianakis, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Ekström and Stark, 2013; Tylianakis, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ekström and Stark, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Dillin et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarthquake Spectra
ISSN (print)8755-2930
ISSN (online)1944-8201

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