How to format your references using the Earthquake Spectra citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earthquake Spectra. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vastag, B., 2008. Assembly work. Nature, 453(7193), 422–423.
A journal article with 2 authors
Linkerhand, M., and Gros, C., 2013. Generating functionals for autonomous latching dynamics in attractor relict networks. Scientific reports, 3, 2042.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nagashima, K., Krot, A. N., and Yurimoto, H., 2004. Stardust silicates from primitive meteorites. Nature, 428(6986), 921–924.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wang, Y., Li, L., Ma, C., Gao, C., Tao, F., and Xu, P., 2013. Engineering of cofactor regeneration enhances (2S,3S)-2,3-butanediol production from diacetyl. Scientific reports, 3, 2643.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
AIChE Equipment Testing Procedure, 1987. Tray Distillation Columns. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Louveaux, Q., and Skutella, M. (Eds.), 2016. Integer Programming and Combinatorial Optimization: 18th International Conference, IPCO 2016, Liège, Belgium, June 1-3, 2016, Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Vol. 9682). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Acebes, C., and Harvie, J. P., 2015. Psoriatic Arthritis. In Y. El Miedany (Ed.), Musculoskeletal Ultrasonography in Rheumatic Diseases (pp. 107–122). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earthquake Spectra.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2015, August 12. Tiny Octopus Displays Some Pretty Bizarre Hunting, Social, And Sexual Behavior. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2014. NASA: Assessments of Selected Large-Scale Projects ( No. GAO-14-338SP). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Williamson, K. M., 2010. The effects of communist policies, the democratic transition, and EU accession on gender equality in Germany and the Czech Republic (Doctoral dissertation). Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W., 2016, February 17. Puerto Rico Debt Bill Takes Step. New York Times, B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Vastag, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Linkerhand and Gros, 2013; Vastag, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Linkerhand and Gros, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarthquake Spectra
ISSN (print)8755-2930
ISSN (online)1944-8201

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