How to format your references using the Earthquake Spectra citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earthquake Spectra. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gibson, S., 2009. Journal club. An organic chemist highlights an ingenious way to make radiotracers. Nature, 457(7229), 515.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ramirez Rozzi, F. V., and Bermudez De Castro, J. M., 2004. Surprisingly rapid growth in Neanderthals. Nature, 428(6986), 936–939.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rau, A. V., Dunningham, J. A., and Burnett, K., 2003. Measurement-induced relative-position localization through entanglement. Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5636), 1081–1084.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Liu, G., Li, Z., Wei, Y., Lin, Y., Yang, C., and Liu, T., 2014. Direct detection of FoxP3 expression in thymic double-negative CD4-CD8- cells by flow cytometry. Scientific reports, 4, 5781.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kay, J., and Tasman, A., 2006. Essentials of Psychiatry. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Frappier, M., Glässer, U., Khurshid, S., Laleau, R., and Reeves, S. (Eds.), 2010. Abstract State Machines, Alloy, B and Z: Second International Conference, ABZ 2010, Orford, QC, Canada, February 22-25, 2010. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Vol. 5977). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Halder, C., Obaidullah, S. M., Paul, J., and Roy, K., 2016. Writer Verification on Bangla Handwritten Characters. In R. Chaki, A. Cortesi, K. Saeed, and N. Chaki (Eds.), Advanced Computing and Systems for Security: Volume 2, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing (pp. 53–68). New Delhi: Springer India.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earthquake Spectra.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2016, November 23. Scientists May Have Finally Figured Out What Causes Food Comas. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2015. Teacher Preparation Programs: Education Should Ensure States Identify Low-Performing Programs and Improve Information-Sharing ( No. GAO-15-598). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Williams, R. N., 2017. Inclusive Classrooms: A Basic Qualitative Study of K-8 Urban Charter School Teachers (Doctoral dissertation). Minneapolis, MN: Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B., 2017, January 30. Concert Giants Seek Gold in New York Grit. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gibson, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Gibson, 2009; Ramirez Rozzi and Bermudez De Castro, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ramirez Rozzi and Bermudez De Castro, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarthquake Spectra
ISSN (print)8755-2930
ISSN (online)1944-8201

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