How to format your references using the Earth System Science Data Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth System Science Data Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Javanainen, J.: Physics. Bose-Einstein condensates interfere and survive, Science, 307, 1883–1885, 2005.
A journal article with 2 authors
Einstein, T. L. and Stasevich, T. J.: Materials science. Epitaxial growth writ large, Science, 327, 423–424, 2010.
A journal article with 3 authors
Glaser, A., Barak, B., and Goldston, R. J.: A zero-knowledge protocol for nuclear warhead verification, Nature, 510, 497–502, 2014.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Walmsley, M. J., Ooi, S. K. T., Reynolds, L. F., Smith, S. H., Ruf, S., Mathiot, A., Vanes, L., Williams, D. A., Cancro, M. P., and Tybulewicz, V. L. J.: Critical roles for Rac1 and Rac2 GTPases in B cell development and signaling, Science, 302, 459–462, 2003.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhang, B. and Wang, X.: Chaos Analysis and Chaotic EMI Suppression of DC-DC Converters, John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd, Singapore, 2014.
An edited book
Davison, S. G.: Green-Function Theory of Chemisorption, edited by: Sulston, K. W., Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, XVIII, 211 p pp., 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Fitzclarence, L.: Reflections on the Deakin Assemblage Of/For the Critical Project, in: Education, Social Justice and the Legacy of Deakin University: Reflections of the Deakin Diaspora, edited by: Tinning, R. and Sirna, K., SensePublishers, Rotterdam, 41–52, 2011.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth System Science Data Discussions.

Blog post
Our Ancestors Were Breeding With At Least Four, But Potentially More Species Of Other Hominins:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Proposed Closure of VOA Dixon Relay Station, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kafi, W.: The effects of patient demographic variables on cesarean section-related surgical site infection rates, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. and Belson, K.: Two Sprinters Agree to Runoff For Olympic Spot, New York Times, 2nd July, D1, 2012.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Javanainen, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Javanainen, 2005; Einstein and Stasevich, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Einstein and Stasevich, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Walmsley et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth System Science Data Discussions
AbbreviationEarth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.
ISSN (online)1866-3591

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