How to format your references using the Earth System Science Data Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth System Science Data Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Meyerowitz, E. M.: Plants compared to animals: the broadest comparative study of development, Science, 295, 1482–1485, 2002.
A journal article with 2 authors
Groves, J. T. and Boaz, N. C.: Biochemistry. Fishing for peroxidase protons, Science, 345, 142–143, 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
Verschure, P. F. M. J., Voegtlin, T., and Douglas, R. J.: Environmentally mediated synergy between perception and behaviour in mobile robots, Nature, 425, 620–624, 2003.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Bouarab, K., Melton, R., Peart, J., Baulcombe, D., and Osbourn, A.: A saponin-detoxifying enzyme mediates suppression of plant defences, Nature, 418, 889–892, 2002.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Alexandrovna, M. I., Ionin, B. I., and Tebby, J. C.: Alkynes in Cycloadditions, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2013.
An edited book
Zurada, J. M., Yen, G. G., and Wang, J. (Eds.): Computational Intelligence: Research Frontiers: IEEE World Congress on Computational Intelligence, WCCI 2008, Hong Kong, China, June 1-6, 2008, Plenary/Invited Lectures, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, XVI, 389 p pp., 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Plinke, W. and Boison, D.: Epilepsy, in: Metabolism of Human Diseases: Organ Physiology and Pathophysiology, edited by: Lammert, E. and Zeeb, M., Springer, Vienna, 23–27, 2014.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth System Science Data Discussions.

Blog post
Why Are Humans Altruistic?, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Information Technology: Customs Automated Commercial Environment Program Progressing, but Need for Management Improvements Continues, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hsieh, D. A.: Informed Technology Adoption Decisions Based on Innovation-Related Factors, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2019.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chira, S.: Cosby Is the Man on Trial. But So Are Power Dynamics, New York Times, 8th June, C1, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Meyerowitz, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Meyerowitz, 2002; Groves and Boaz, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Groves and Boaz, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Bouarab et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth System Science Data Discussions
AbbreviationEarth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.
ISSN (online)1866-3591

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