How to format your references using the Earth System Science Data Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth System Science Data Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hwang, W. C.: Journal club. A structural biologist has great expectations for llamas’ small antibodies, Nature, 459(7245), 303, 2009.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kamena, F. and Spang, A.: Tip20p prohibits back-fusion of COPII vesicles with the endoplasmic reticulum, Science, 304(5668), 286–289, 2004.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chisholm, S. W., Falkowski, P. G. and Cullen, J. J.: Oceans. Dis-crediting ocean fertilization, Science, 294(5541), 309–310, 2001.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Gogolla, N., Caroni, P., Lüthi, A. and Herry, C.: Perineuronal nets protect fear memories from erasure, Science, 325(5945), 1258–1261, 2009.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kadane, J. B. and Schum, D. A.: A Probabilistic Analysis of the Sacco and Vanzetti Evidence: Kadane/A Probabilistic, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ., 1997.
An edited book
Li, M.: An Introduction to Kolmogorov Complexity and Its Applications, Third Edition., edited by P. Vitányi, Springer, New York, NY., 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Moeskopf, E. and Feenstra, F.: Introduction to Rapid Prototyping, in Reverse Engineering: An Industrial Perspective, edited by V. Raja and K. J. Fernandes, pp. 99–117, Springer, London., 2008.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth System Science Data Discussions.

Blog post
Hamilton, K.: What The Color Of Your Snot Says About Your Health, IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018), 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Information Technology: DLA Should Strengthen Business Systems Modernization Architecture and Investment Activities, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hoang, T. T.: Acoustic and Image Vehicle Classification System, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA., 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G.: Anything Can Happen In a San Francisco Series, New York Times, 26th October, B12, 2010.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hwang, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Hwang, 2009; Kamena and Spang, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kamena and Spang, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Gogolla et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth System Science Data Discussions
AbbreviationEarth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.
ISSN (online)1866-3591

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