How to format your references using the Earth System Science Data Discussions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth System Science Data Discussions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Thiemens, M. H.: Atmospheric science. The mass-independent ozone isotope effect, Science, 293, 226, 2001.
A journal article with 2 authors
Holt, M. and Jahn, R.: Neuroscience. Synaptic vesicles in the fast lane, Science, 303, 1986–1987, 2004.
A journal article with 3 authors
Loughlin, P. C., Willows, R. D., and Chen, M.: In vitro conversion of vinyl to formyl groups in naturally occurring chlorophylls, Sci. Rep., 4, 6069, 2014.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Xu, M., Liu, H., Zhao, H., and Li, W.: How to decrease the viscosity of suspension with the second fluid and nanoparticles?, Sci. Rep., 3, 3137, 2013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morana, J.: Sustainable Supply Chain Management, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA, 2013.
An edited book
Tryfonas, T. and Askoxylakis, I. (Eds.): Human Aspects of Information Security, Privacy, and Trust: Second International Conference, HAS 2014, Held as Part of HCI International 2014, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, June 22-27, 2014. Proceedings, Springer International Publishing, Cham, XXII, 448 p. 129 illus pp., 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Sha, R., Zhang, X., Liao, S., Constantinou, P. E., Ding, B., Wang, T., Garibotti, A. V., Zhong, H., Israel, L. B., Wang, X., Wu, G., Chakraborty, B., Chen, J., Zhang, Y., Yan, H., Shen, Z., Shen, W., Sa-Ardyen, P., Kopatsch, J., Zheng, J., Lukeman, P. S., Sherman, W. B., Mao, C., Jonoska, N., and Seeman, N. C.: Structural DNA Nanotechnology: Molecular Construction and Computation, in: Unconventional Computation: 4th International Conference, UC 2005, Sevilla, Spain, October 3 – 7, 2005. Proceedings, edited by: Calude, C. S., Dinneen, M. J., Păun, G., Pérez-Jímenez, M. J., and Rozenberg, G., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 20–31, 2005.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth System Science Data Discussions.

Blog post
How To Watch The ISS Fly Overhead On Christmas Eve:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Intellectual Property: Enhancements to Coordinating U.S. Enforcement Efforts, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wiedeman, L. D.: Acceptance promoting and hindering interactions in integrative behavioral couple therapy, Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L.: Justices Hear Arguments Over Whether Foreigners Have Reciprocal Rights in the U.S, New York Times, 30th March, A19, 2006.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Thiemens, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Thiemens, 2001; Holt and Jahn, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Holt and Jahn, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Xu et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth System Science Data Discussions
AbbreviationEarth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.
ISSN (online)1866-3591

Other styles