How to format your references using the Earth Science Informatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth Science Informatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Miller C (2006) Biophysics. Lonely voltage sensor seeks protons for permeation. Science 312:534–535
A journal article with 2 authors
Carrizosa E, Mempel TR (2015) Immunology: In the right place at the right time. Nature 528:205–206
A journal article with 3 authors
Schenk P, Matsuyama I, Nimmo F (2008) True polar wander on Europa from global-scale small-circle depressions. Nature 453:368–371
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Lee S-W, Han S-W, Sririyanum M, et al (2009) A type I-secreted, sulfated peptide triggers XA21-mediated innate immunity. Science 326:850–853

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
da Silva LS, Simões R, Gervásio H, Couchman G (2015) Design of Steel Structures. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Srivastava AK, Anand-Srivastava MB (eds) (2008) Signal Transduction in the Cardiovascular System in Health and Disease. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Eide AH, Loeb M (2016) Counting Disabled People: Historical Perspectives and the Challenges of Disability Statistics. In: Grech S, Soldatic K (eds) Disability in the Global South: The Critical Handbook. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 51–68

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth Science Informatics.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) New Liquid Metal Battery Will Make Renewables Competitive. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999) Federal Communications Commission: Implementation of the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yuan S (2008) Aberrations of anamorphic optical systems. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Protess B, Apuzzo M (2017) Tougher on Corporate Crime. For Now. New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Miller 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Miller 2006; Carrizosa and Mempel 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Carrizosa and Mempel 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Lee et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth Science Informatics
AbbreviationEarth Sci. Inform.
ISSN (print)1865-0473
ISSN (online)1865-0481
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences

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