How to format your references using the Earth Science Informatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth Science Informatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Diamond J (2001) Ecology. Dammed experiments! Science 294:1847–1848
A journal article with 2 authors
Seeberger PH, Werz DB (2007) Synthesis and medical applications of oligosaccharides. Nature 446:1046–1051
A journal article with 3 authors
Kirn TJ, Jude BA, Taylor RK (2005) A colonization factor links Vibrio cholerae environmental survival and human infection. Nature 438:863–866
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Gao H, Yang Z, Zhang S, et al (2013) Ligand modified nanoparticles increases cell uptake, alters endocytosis and elevates glioma distribution and internalization. Sci Rep 3:2534

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Webb RC (2005) Tele-Visionaries. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Leonhardt S, Falck T, Mähönen P (eds) (2007) 4th International Workshop on Wearable and Implantable Body Sensor Networks (BSN 2007): March 26 – 28, 2007 RWTH Aachen University, Germany. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Mason JE, Traoré I, Woungang I (2016) Feature Extraction. In: Traoré I, Woungang I (eds) Machine Learning Techniques for Gait Biometric Recognition: Using the Ground Reaction Force. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 53–87

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth Science Informatics.

Blog post
Hamilton K (2014) This Is What Happens If You Wear Magnetic Items In An MRI Machine. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989) Content Analysis: A Methodology for Structuring and Analyzing Written Material--Transfer Paper 10.1.3. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chen C-Y (2010) The analysis of communication problems and language barriers between patients and physicians in California. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson G (2016) Recognizing the Artifice in Artificial Intelligence. New York Times D5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Diamond 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Diamond 2001; Seeberger and Werz 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Seeberger and Werz 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Gao et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth Science Informatics
AbbreviationEarth Sci. Inform.
ISSN (print)1865-0473
ISSN (online)1865-0481
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences

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