How to format your references using the Earth Science Informatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth Science Informatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Keller R (2002) Shaping the vertebrate body plan by polarized embryonic cell movements. Science 298:1950–1954
A journal article with 2 authors
Narayan ARH, Sherman DH (2013) Chemistry. Re-engineering nature’s catalysts. Science 339:283–284
A journal article with 3 authors
Makarieva AM, Gorshkov VG, Li B-L (2009) Comment on “Energy uptake and allocation during ontogeny.” Science 325:1206; author reply 1206
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Solomon P, Vanden Bout P, Carilli C, Guelin M (2003) The essential signature of a massive starburst in a distant quasar. Nature 426:636–638

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bartlett K (2016) The Experience of History. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
R. Sudhakaran P (ed) (2014) Perspectives in Cancer Prevention-Translational Cancer Research. Springer India, New Delhi
A chapter in an edited book
Høholdt T (2006) The Merit Factor Problem for Binary Sequences. In: Fossorier MPC, Imai H, Lin S, Poli A (eds) Applied Algebra, Algebraic Algorithms and Error-Correcting Codes: 16th International Symposium, AAECC-16, Las Vegas, NV, USA, February 20-24, 2006. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 51–59

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth Science Informatics.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Scientists Get Ready For The Latest Gravitational Wave Search. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991) Forest Service Is Making Progress in Developing a Nationwide Geographic Information System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mehta K (2015) An optimized modified booth recoder for efficient design of the add-multiply operator. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M (2010) No Longer Thinking Uniformly. New York Times E5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Keller 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Keller 2002; Narayan and Sherman 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Narayan and Sherman 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Solomon et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth Science Informatics
AbbreviationEarth Sci. Inform.
ISSN (print)1865-0473
ISSN (online)1865-0481
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences

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