How to format your references using the Early Popular Visual Culture citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Early Popular Visual Culture. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mavilio, Fulvio. 2012. “Gene Therapies Need New Development Models.” Nature 490 (7418): 7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stern, David L., and Virginie Orgogozo. 2009. “Is Genetic Evolution Predictable?” Science (New York, N.Y.) 323 (5915): 746–751.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sharp, D. J., G. C. Rogers, and J. M. Scholey. 2000. “Microtubule Motors in Mitosis.” Nature 407 (6800): 41–47.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Boettger, Thomas, Christian A. Hübner, Hannes Maier, Marco B. Rust, Franz X. Beck, and Thomas J. Jentsch. 2002. “Deafness and Renal Tubular Acidosis in Mice Lacking the K-Cl Co-Transporter Kcc4.” Nature 416 (6883): 874–878.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Reeve, Whitham D. 2006. DC Power System Design for Telecommunications. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Litrico, Xavier. 2009. Modeling and Control of Hydrosystems. Edited by Vincent Fromion. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Huang, Weidong, Leila Alem, and Franco Tecchia. 2013. “HandsIn3D: Supporting Remote Guidance with Immersive Virtual Environments.” In Human-Computer Interaction – INTERACT 2013: 14th IFIP TC 13 International Conference, Cape Town, South Africa, September 2-6, 2013, Proceedings, Part I, edited by Paula Kotzé, Gary Marsden, Gitte Lindgaard, Janet Wesson, and Marco Winckler, 70–77. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Early Popular Visual Culture.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. 2016. “Why Can’t We See Stars In Space Photographs?” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1971. Savings Available to Government on Certain IBM Automatic Data Processing Equipment. 093029. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jategaonkar, Shrikant Prabhakar. 2009. “Two Essays on Stock Repurchases and Insider Trading.” Doctoral dissertation, Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, Mary Williams. 2012. “At Airline, A Pensions Compromise.” New York Times, March 8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mavilio 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Mavilio 2012; Stern and Orgogozo 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stern and Orgogozo 2009)
  • Three authors: (Sharp, Rogers, and Scholey 2000)
  • 4 or more authors: (Boettger et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarly Popular Visual Culture
AbbreviationEarly Popul. Vis. Cult.
ISSN (print)1746-0654
ISSN (online)1746-0662
Visual Arts and Performing Arts
Cultural Studies

Other styles