How to format your references using the Early Popular Visual Culture citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Early Popular Visual Culture. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crow, James Mitchell. 2012. “Psoriasis Uncovered.” Nature 492 (7429): S50-1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Helffrich, G. R., and B. J. Wood. 2001. “The Earth’s Mantle.” Nature 412 (6846): 501–507.
A journal article with 3 authors
Knigge, Christian, Nathan Leigh, and Alison Sills. 2009. “A Binary Origin for ‘blue Stragglers’ in Globular Clusters.” Nature 457 (7227): 288–290.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Li, Bo, John Paul J. Yu, Joseph S. Brunzelle, Gert N. Moll, Wilfred A. van der Donk, and Satish K. Nair. 2006. “Structure and Mechanism of the Lantibiotic Cyclase Involved in Nisin Biosynthesis.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 311 (5766): 1464–1467.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tapiero, Charles S. 2010. Risk Finance and Asset Pricing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kabashima, Kenji, ed. 2016. Immunology of the Skin: Basic and Clinical Sciences in Skin Immune Responses. 1st ed. 2016. Tokyo: Springer Japan.
A chapter in an edited book
Alahmari, Saad. 2015. “Overcoming Cultural Barriers.” In Critical Storytelling in Uncritical Times: Stories Disclosed in a Cultural Foundations of Education Course, edited by Nicholas D. Hartlep and Brandon O. Hensley, 37–41. Constructing Knowledge: Curriculum Studies in Action. Rotterdam: SensePublishers.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Early Popular Visual Culture.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Dear Parents, You Are Being Lied To.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1995. Strategic Airlift: Improvements in C-5 Mission Capability Can Help Meet Airlift Requirements. NSIAD-96-43. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bremond, Diandra Simone. 2017. “When Women Win: Prominent Leadership Traits That Contributed to the Successful Election of Women in California.” Doctoral dissertation, Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chira, Susan. 2016. “The Comforts of Jane.” New York Times, December 23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Crow 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Crow 2012; Helffrich and Wood 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Helffrich and Wood 2001)
  • Three authors: (Knigge, Leigh, and Sills 2009)
  • 4 or more authors: (Li et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarly Popular Visual Culture
AbbreviationEarly Popul. Vis. Cult.
ISSN (print)1746-0654
ISSN (online)1746-0662
Visual Arts and Performing Arts
Cultural Studies

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