How to format your references using the Early Popular Visual Culture citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Early Popular Visual Culture. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Masocha, Willias. 2014. “Paclitaxel-Induced Hyposensitivity to Nociceptive Chemical Stimulation in Mice Can Be Prevented by Treatment with Minocycline.” Scientific Reports 4 (October): 6719.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schwartz, David, and Francis Collins. 2007. “Medicine. Environmental Biology and Human Disease.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 316 (5825): 695–696.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bonderer, Lorenz J., André R. Studart, and Ludwig J. Gauckler. 2008. “Bioinspired Design and Assembly of Platelet Reinforced Polymer Films.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 319 (5866): 1069–1073.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kang, Hwiwon, Hyejin Park, Yongsu Park, Minhoon Jung, Byung Chul Kim, Gordon Wallace, and Gyoujin Cho. 2014. “Fully Roll-to-Roll Gravure Printable Wireless (13.56 MHz) Sensor-Signage Tags for Smart Packaging.” Scientific Reports 4 (June): 5387.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Carrasco, Rolando Antonio, and Martin Johnston. 2008. Non-Binary Error Control Coding for Wireless Communication and Data Storage. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Niederberger, Markus. 2009. Metal Oxide Nanoparticles in Organic Solvents: Synthesis, Formation, Assembly and Application. Edited by Nicola Pinna. Engineering Materials and Processes. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Zeinalipour-Yazti, D., V. Kalogeraki, D. Gunopulos, A. Mitra, A. Banerjee, and W. Najjar. 2005. “Towards In-Situ Data Storage in Sensor Databases.” In Advances in Informatics: 10th Panhellenic Conference on Informatics, PCI 2005, Volas, Greece, November 11-13, 2005. Proceedings, edited by Panayiotis Bozanis and Elias N. Houstis, 36–46. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Early Popular Visual Culture.

Blog post
Evans, Katy. 2017. “Watching Nature Documentaries Makes Us Ridiculously Happy.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2015. Space Acquisitions: Some Programs Have Overcome Past Problems, but Challenges and Uncertainty Remain for the Future. GAO-15-492T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mihalas, Stephanie Tamara. 2008. “Positive Protective Factors as Moderators in the Relationship between Relational Victimization and Depression in Minority Adolescents.” Doctoral dissertation, Tampa, FL: University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, James. 2017. “O Slapstick Tragedy!” New York Times, March 29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Masocha 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Masocha 2014; Schwartz and Collins 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schwartz and Collins 2007)
  • Three authors: (Bonderer, Studart, and Gauckler 2008)
  • 4 or more authors: (Kang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarly Popular Visual Culture
AbbreviationEarly Popul. Vis. Cult.
ISSN (print)1746-0654
ISSN (online)1746-0662
Visual Arts and Performing Arts
Cultural Studies

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