How to format your references using the Early Popular Visual Culture citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Early Popular Visual Culture. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mervis, Jeffrey. 2015. “Behind the Numbers. Salaries Pump up Biomedical Inflation.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 349 (6245): 225.
A journal article with 2 authors
Csabai, István, and Eörs Szathmáry. 2011. “Comment on ‘A Bacterium That Can Grow by Using Arsenic Instead of Phosphorus.’” Science (New York, N.Y.) 332 (6034): 1149; author reply 1149.
A journal article with 3 authors
González, Edgar, Jordi Arbiol, and Víctor F. Puntes. 2011. “Carving at the Nanoscale: Sequential Galvanic Exchange and Kirkendall Growth at Room Temperature.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 334 (6061): 1377–1380.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Fang, Changming, Pete Smith, John B. Moncrieff, and Jo U. Smith. 2005. “Similar Response of Labile and Resistant Soil Organic Matter Pools to Changes in Temperature.” Nature 433 (7021): 57–59.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shick, Paul L. 2007. Topology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Murphy, Finbarr, Eamonn M. McAlea, and Martin Mullins, eds. 2016. Managing Risk in Nanotechnology: Topics in Governance, Assurance and Transfer. Innovation, Technology, and Knowledge Management. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Sheikh, Mona A., and Yaniv Erlich. 2012. “Base-Calling for Bioinformaticians.” In Bioinformatics for High Throughput Sequencing, edited by Naiara Rodríguez-Ezpeleta, Michael Hackenberg, and Ana M. Aransay, 67–83. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Early Popular Visual Culture.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2016. “A 75-Pound Pearl Has Been Hidden Under A Fisherman’s Bed For 10 Years.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1976. Selected Literature on Cost Accounting and Cost Control for Automatic Data Processing. 092323. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lee, Ki Sun. 2008. “Towards an Improved Baton Technique: The Application and Modification of Conducting Gestures Drawn from the Methods of Rudolf, Green and Saitö for Enhanced Performance of Orchestral Interpretations.” Doctoral dissertation, Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, Mary. 2013. “Before Attempting To Top Opponents, U.S. Open Players Must Beat Traffic.” New York Times, September 2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mervis 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Mervis 2015; Csabai and Szathmáry 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Csabai and Szathmáry 2011)
  • Three authors: (González, Arbiol, and Puntes 2011)
  • 4 or more authors: (Fang et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarly Popular Visual Culture
AbbreviationEarly Popul. Vis. Cult.
ISSN (print)1746-0654
ISSN (online)1746-0662
Visual Arts and Performing Arts
Cultural Studies

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