How to format your references using the Early Popular Visual Culture citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Early Popular Visual Culture. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bystricky, Misha. 2003. “Geophysics. Mantle Flow Revisited.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 301 (5637): 1190–1191.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bartek, J., and J. Lukas. 2001. “Cell Cycle. Order from Destruction.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 294 (5540): 66–67.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kearns, Michael, Siddharth Suri, and Nick Montfort. 2006. “An Experimental Study of the Coloring Problem on Human Subject Networks.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 313 (5788): 824–827.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Lim, Hubert H., Minoo Lenarz, Gert Joseph, and Thomas Lenarz. 2013. “Frequency Representation within the Human Brain: Stability versus Plasticity.” Scientific Reports 3: 1474.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Quadbeck-Seeger, Hans-Jürgen. 2007. World of the Elements. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Kar, Saibal. 2015. Industrial and Labor Economics: Issues in Developing and Transition Countries. Edited by Debabrata Datta. Vol. 25. India Studies in Business and Economics. New Delhi: Springer India.
A chapter in an edited book
Xiang, Yong, Dezhong Peng, and Zuyuan Yang. 2015. “Dependent Component Analysis Using Precoding.” In Blind Source Separation: Dependent Component Analysis, edited by Dezhong Peng and Zuyuan Yang, 73–90. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. Singapore: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Early Popular Visual Culture.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle. 2016. “How Time-Poor Scientists Inadvertently Made It Seem Like The World Was Overrun With Jellyfish.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1992. Financial Management: NASA’s Financial Reports Are Based on Unreliable Data. AFMD-93-3. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sutton, Daniel Scott. 2015. “Structural and Geophysical Interpretation of Roatán Island, Honduras, Western Caribbean.” Doctoral dissertation, Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, Sophia. 2002. “In Blast Police Call Accident, Muscovites See Terrorist Hand.” New York Times, August 22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bystricky 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Bystricky 2003; Bartek and Lukas 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bartek and Lukas 2001)
  • Three authors: (Kearns, Suri, and Montfort 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Lim et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarly Popular Visual Culture
AbbreviationEarly Popul. Vis. Cult.
ISSN (print)1746-0654
ISSN (online)1746-0662
Visual Arts and Performing Arts
Cultural Studies

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