How to format your references using the Early Popular Visual Culture citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Early Popular Visual Culture. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baulcombe, David. 2004. “RNA Silencing in Plants.” Nature 431 (7006): 356–363.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pandey, A., and M. Mann. 2000. “Proteomics to Study Genes and Genomes.” Nature 405 (6788): 837–846.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yoo, H. I., M. W. Barsoum, and T. El-Raghy. 2000. “Ti3SiC2 Has Negligible Thermopower.” Nature 407 (6804): 581–582.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Goshima, Gohta, Roy Wollman, Sarah S. Goodwin, Nan Zhang, Jonathan M. Scholey, Ronald D. Vale, and Nico Stuurman. 2007. “Genes Required for Mitotic Spindle Assembly in Drosophila S2 Cells.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 316 (5823): 417–421.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wrobel, Gretchen Miller, and Elsbeth Neil. 2009. International Advances in Adoption Research for Practice. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Calvary, Gaëlle, Costin Pribeanu, Giuseppe Santucci, and Jean Vanderdonckt, eds. 2007. Computer-Aided Design of User Interfaces V. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Bourgain, Jean. 2014. “An Improved Estimate in the Restricted Isometry Problem.” In Geometric Aspects of Functional Analysis: Israel Seminar (GAFA) 2011-2013, edited by Bo’az Klartag and Emanuel Milman, 65–70. Lecture Notes in Mathematics. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Early Popular Visual Culture.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2015. “Outer Envelope of Flu Virus Simulated for the First Time.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2016. Unmanned Carrier-Based Aircraft System: Debate over System’s Role Led to Focus on Aerial Refueling. GAO-16-389R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alayed, Rana Ali. 2010. “Creating a Culture of Safety Using Electronic Medical Records as a Tool.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear, Michael D., Helene Cooper, and Eric Schmitt. 2017. “Trump Warns Assad After Reports of Possible Gas Preparations.” New York Times, June 27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baulcombe 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Baulcombe 2004; Pandey and Mann 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pandey and Mann 2000)
  • Three authors: (Yoo, Barsoum, and El-Raghy 2000)
  • 4 or more authors: (Goshima et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarly Popular Visual Culture
AbbreviationEarly Popul. Vis. Cult.
ISSN (print)1746-0654
ISSN (online)1746-0662
Visual Arts and Performing Arts
Cultural Studies

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