How to format your references using the Early Childhood Education Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Early Childhood Education Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brash, D. E. (2015). Cancer. Preprocancer. Science (New York, N.Y.), 348(6237), 867–868.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bel, S., & Hooper, L. V. (2015). Immunology: A bacterial nudge to T-cell function. Nature, 526(7573), 328–330.
A journal article with 3 authors
Minamimoto, T., Hori, Y., & Kimura, M. (2005). Complementary process to response bias in the centromedian nucleus of the thalamus. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5729), 1798–1801.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Deng, Y., Josberger, E., Jin, J., Roudsari, A. F., Rousdari, A. F., Helms, B. A., et al. (2013). H+-type and OH- -type biological protonic semiconductors and complementary devices. Scientific reports, 3, 2481.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ventre, D. (2016). Information Warfare. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ausiello, G., Karhumäki, J., Mauri, G., & Ong, L. (Eds.). (2008). Fifth Ifip International Conference On Theoretical Computer Science – Tcs 2008 (Vol. 273). Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Ekardt, F. (2013). Climate Change and Justice: Perspectives of Legal Theory. In E. J. Hollo, K. Kulovesi, & M. Mehling (Eds.), Climate Change and the Law (pp. 63–79). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Early Childhood Education Journal.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015, November 2). According To The UN, Current Pledges Aren’t Enough To Halt Climate Change. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2011). Department of Energy: Advanced Technology Vehicle Loan Program Implementation Is Under Way, but Enhanced Technical Oversight and Performance Measures Are Needed (No. GAO-11-145). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Valadez, I. (2010). A psycho-education peer support group for homeless youth: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hartocollis, A. (2014, April 25). NYU Langone Restarts Emergency Room Damaged by Hurricane Sandy. New York Times, p. A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brash 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Bel and Hooper 2015; Brash 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bel and Hooper 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Deng et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarly Childhood Education Journal
AbbreviationEarly Child. Educ. J.
ISSN (print)1082-3301
ISSN (online)1573-1707
ScopeDevelopmental and Educational Psychology

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