How to format your references using the Early Childhood Education Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Early Childhood Education Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sparks, S. (2007). Use the calm between the storms. Nature, 450(7168), 354.
A journal article with 2 authors
Toffelmier, D. A., & Tyburczy, J. A. (2007). Electromagnetic detection of a 410-km-deep melt layer in the southwestern United States. Nature, 447(7147), 991–994.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zehn, D., Lee, S. Y., & Bevan, M. J. (2009). Complete but curtailed T-cell response to very low-affinity antigen. Nature, 458(7235), 211–214.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Petit, L., Svane, A., Szotek, Z., & Temmerman, W. M. (2003). First-principles calculations of PuO(2+/-x). Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5632), 498–501.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Deuff, D., & Cosquer, M. (2013). User-Centered Agile Method. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Biskup, J., & López, J. (Eds.). (2007). Computer Security – ESORICS 2007: 12th European Symposium On Research In Computer Security, Dresden, Germany, September 24 — 26, 2007. Proceedings (Vol. 4734). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Marreiros, G., Santos, R., & Ramos, C. (2010). GLSS – Group Learning in Shared Spaces Considering Aspects Like Emotion and Personality. In J. C. Augusto, J. M. Corchado, P. Novais, & C. Analide (Eds.), Ambient Intelligence and Future Trends-International Symposium on Ambient Intelligence (ISAmI 2010) (pp. 37–44). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Early Childhood Education Journal.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, June 10). Huge Ancient Hidden Monument Found In Petra Using Satellites, Drones, And Google Earth. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1991). Transportation Infrastructure: Federal Highway Administration FY 1992 Budget Request and Highway Program Reauthorization Proposal (No. T-RCED-91-12). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Satterlee, R. T. (2009). A case study of undergraduate student employment at a private university: Exploring the effects of social class and institutional context (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper, M. (2017, July 20). Met Opera Announces Lineup of Screenings. New York Times, p. C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sparks 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Sparks 2007; Toffelmier and Tyburczy 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Toffelmier and Tyburczy 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Petit et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarly Childhood Education Journal
AbbreviationEarly Child. Educ. J.
ISSN (print)1082-3301
ISSN (online)1573-1707
ScopeDevelopmental and Educational Psychology

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