How to format your references using the Drug Safety - Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Drug Safety - Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Ledford H. Cheap at any price? Nature. 2007;447:131.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Eeva T, Lehikoinen E. Recovery of breeding success in wild birds. Nature. 2000;403:851–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Taylor JP, Hardy J, Fischbeck KH. Toxic proteins in neurodegenerative disease. Science. 2002;296:1991–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Slon V, Mafessoni F, Vernot B, de Filippo C, Grote S, Viola B, et al. The genome of the offspring of a Neanderthal mother and a Denisovan father. Nature. 2018;561:113–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Stephans RA. System Safety for the 21 st Century. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2004.
An edited book
1. Jensen RR, Gatrell JD, McLean D, editors. Geo-Spatial Technologies in Urban Environments: Policy, Practice, and Pixels. Second Edition. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Davenport M. Shock. In: Sinha CK, Davenport M, editors. Handbook of Pediatric Surgery. London: Springer; 2010. p. 25–8.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Drug Safety - Case Reports.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Coydogs And Lynxcats And Pizzlies, Oh My [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: Census Bureau Needs to Improve Its Risk Management of Decennial Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007 Oct. Report No.: GAO-08-79.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Pierre RR. A Phenomenological Study of the Boomerang-Employment Experience of Scientists and Engineers [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2019.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Rothenberg B. Some Chafe at Rules Meant to Protect Youngest Girls. New York Times. 2017 Sep 11;D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDrug Safety - Case Reports
AbbreviationDrug Saf. Case Rep.
ISSN (print)2199-1162
ISSN (online)2198-977X
ScopePharmacology (medical)

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